Microbiome digest, October 8, 2014

Blogging from our yearly retreat in Santa Cruz, California: Rethinking Enterotypes, Wolbachia phylogenomics,  hydrothermal vents, and the influence of salamanders on soil microbiome.

Human Microbiome General

Genes & cells: Body microbes make useful molecules: Human microbiome produces thousands of drug candidates – Tina Hesman Saey – Science News

Human Gut Microbiome

Rethinking “Enterotypes” – Dan Knights – Cell Host and Microbe

“However, as discussed here, several different methods of collapsing enterotype variation into a few discrete clusters suggest that enterotype distribution is continuous and can vary widely within an individual.”

Fecal Bacterial Community Changes Associated with Isoflavone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women after Soy Bar Consumption – Cindy H. Nakatsu – PLOS ONE

“Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03) before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. “

Insect microbiome

Phylogenomic analyses uncover origin and spread of the Wolbachia pandemic – Michael Gerth  – Nature Communications

“Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of Wolbachia supergroup relationships based on new whole-genome-shotgun data.”

Coral microbiome

Comparing Bacterial Community Composition of Healthy and Dark Spot-Affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean – Christina A. Kellogg – PLOS ONE

“Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. “

Soil Microbiome

Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska – Luis N. Morgado – Global Change Biology

“We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra.”

A metagenomics-based approach to the top-down effect on the detritivore food web: a salamanders influence on fungal communities within a deciduous forest – Donald M. Walker – Ecology and Evolution

“From each sample, DNA was extracted, fungal-specific amplification performed, and 454 pyrosequencing was used to sequence the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region and partial ribosomal large subunit (LSU).”

Water microbiome

Evolutionary Strategies of Viruses, Bacteria and Archaea in Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems Revealed through Metagenomics – Rika E Anderson – PLOS ONE

“Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, “

Metabolomics

Discovery and Characterization of Gut Microbiota Decarboxylases that Can Produce the Neurotransmitter Tryptamine – Brianna B. Williams – -Cell Host and Microbe

“Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter

Techniques

Selective Microbial Genomic DNA Isolation Using Restriction Endonucleases – Helen E. Barnes – PLOS ONE

“Using synthetic genome mixtures, we demonstrate 80% recovery of Escherichia coli genomic DNA even when only femtogram quantities are spiked into 10 µg of human DNA background.”

 More Microbiology

Pseudomonas aeruginosa eradicates Staphylococcus aureus by manipulating the host immunity – Erwan Pernet – Nature Communications

“Our results indicate that a bacterium can eradicate another bacterium by manipulating the host immunity.”

Preparation and evaluation of low-calorie functional ice cream containing inulin, lactulose and Bifidobacterium lactis  – Majid Hashemi- International Journal of Dairy Technology

“This study was aimed to investigate the effects of replacing 5% fat and sugar by inulin and lactulose, respectively, on the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the ice cream. “

Microbes in the News

Second Genome, Mayo Clinic team up to explore the microbiome – Stephanie M. Lee – SF Gate

“Second Genome will identify up to eight conditions in which the microbiome potentially plays a role, and the Mayo Clinic will provide human clinical samples for patients with those diseases.”

 Oral health affects overall health – PhillyTrib

“The evidence shows that an infection from periodontitis, or gum disease, can put you at risk for other serious conditions like heart disease, stroke and more.”

Safety Bees: Bacteria From Bees Used To Fight Infections – The Ledger

 “A group of 13 lactic-acid bacteria found in fresh honey from the honey stomach of bees could be the key to bringing an old folk remedy into modern science”

Bik’s Picks  

How dinosaurs divided their meals at the Jurassic dinner table – Science Daily

“How the largest animals to have ever walked on Earth fed, and how this allowed them to live alongside one another in prehistoric ecosystems, is the subject of new research.”

Imitation, Genetic Lineages, and Time Influenced the Morphological Evolution of the Violin – Daniel H. Chitwood – PLOS ONE

“Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history.”

Cat Watch 2014: What’s it like being a cat? – BBC

“Cats are at a crucial point in their evolutionary journey as they transform from solitary hunters to domestic pets, a study by the BBC and the Royal Veterinary College has revealed.”
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Human microbiome digest, October 6, 2014

Preterm birth, multiple sclerosis, aging, and Clostridium difficile infection in animal models.

Pregnancy and Birth

Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Clinical Review on Diagnostic Biomarkers and the Role of the Intestinal Microbiota – Niemarkt, Hendrik J. – Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

“In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of NEC with a focus on the role of microbiota in the development of NEC.”

* Intestinal microbiota of preterm infants differ over time and between hospitals – Diana H Taft – Microbiome Journal

“DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina MiSeq using universal primers. “

Babies’ Gut Bacteria Are Mostly Fixed By Time Spent In The Womb – Nicholas Ellaby – Science 2.0

“Now, a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has added a critical piece to the puzzle. “

Human Gut Microbiome

Gut microbiome and the risk factors in central nervous system autoimmunity – Javier Ochoa-Repárazemail, Lloyd H. Kasper – FEBS Letters

“Of interest to this review is the consistency between this range of MS risk factors and the gut microbiome. We postulate that the gut microbiome serves as the niche where different MS risk factors merge, thereby influencing the disease process.”

Compositional dynamics of the human intestinal microbiota with aging: Implications for health – B. Lakshminarayanan – The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

“This review summarizes the age-related changes in the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the link between the gut microbiota in health and disease. “

Animal models of microbiome research

A Beneficial Effect of Oral Tigecycline Treatment on Clostridium difficile Infection in Gnotobiotic Piglets – Hyeun Bum Kim – Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

“The efficacy of oral tigecycline treatment (2mg/kg for 7 days) on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was evaluated in the gnotobiotic pig model, and its effect on human gut microflora transplanted into the gnotobiotic pig was determined. “

A novel multi-strain probiotic and synbiotic supplement for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in a murine model – Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi – Microbiology and Immunology

“Feces and cecal contents were collected for microbial cell viability, quantitative PCR (qPCR), toxin analyses and histopathology.“

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Microbiome digest, September 22, 2014

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Temporal stability of the microbiomes of 85 adults, bacteria in breast milk, vaginal microbiome during pregnancy, water microbiomes, and Bik’s Picks.

Human microbiome general

Temporal variability is a personalized feature of the human microbiome – Gilberto E Flores – PeerJ PrePrints

“Here we address this gap in understanding by profiling the forehead, gut (fecal), palm, and tongue microbial communities in 85 adults, weekly over three months.”

Pregnancy and birth

It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant – Lars Bode – Advances in Nutrition

“This article is a summary of the symposium “It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA.”

Microorganisms in the Female Genital Tract during Pregnancy: Tolerance versus Pathogenesis – Bruna de Andrade Ramos – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“We review the state of knowledge of microbe–host interactions in gestational tissues and highlight mechanisms that promote tolerance or pathogenesis.”

Determinants and pattern of care seeking for preterm newborns in a rural Bangladeshi cohort – Rashed Shah – BMC Health Services Research

“Only one-fifth (19.7%) of preterm newborns were taken to seek either preventive or curative health care.”

Human oral microbiome

Microbial signature profiles of periodontally healthy and diseased patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analysed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Nutrients with Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties – Céline Druart – Advances in Nutrition

“In this review, we describe how changes in the composition and/or activity of the gut microbiota by administration of nutrients with probiotic or prebiotic properties can modulate host gene expression and metabolism and thereby positively influence host adipose tissue development and related metabolic disorders.”

Mammal microbiome

Resistance to Antibiotics of Clinical Relevance in the Fecal Microbiota of Mexican Wildlife – Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate – PLOS ONE

“Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys, spider monkeys, tapirs and felids living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence.“

Bird microbiome

Do feather-degrading bacteria actually degrade feather colour? No significant effects of plumage microbiome modifications on feather colouration in wild great tits – Staffan Jacob – Naturwissenschaften

“Here, we tested whether (i) keratinolytic microorganisms can degrade feathers in vivo and thus modify the colour of feathers during the nesting period and (ii) whether feather microorganisms have a long-term effect on the investment in colouration of newly moulted feathers.”

Plant microbiome

Impact of swapping soils on the endophytic bacterial communities of pre-domesticated, ancient and modern maize – David Johnston-Monje – BMC Plant Biology

“The impact of these soil swaps on founder bacterial endophyte communities was tested using 16S-rDNA profiling, culturing and microbial trait phenotyping.“

Microbiota in Wheat Roots, Rhizosphere and Soil in Crops Grown in Organic and Other Production Systems – Leszek Lenc – Journal of Phytopathology

“The other two systems were intermediate, with microbial communities suggesting that the conventional system produced a slightly more suppressive environment than the integrated system. “

Soil microbiome

Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in Bleached Mottles of Tropical Podzols –
K. J. Silva, P. Vidal-Torrado, M. R. Lambais – Microbial Ecology

“In this study, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities along three Brazilian coastal podzol profiles, as well as in bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity, using 16S rRNA gene profiling.”

Water microbiome

Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river – Amanda McCormick – Environmental Science & Technology

“Results from high-throughput sequencing showed that bacterial assemblages colonizing microplastic within the river were less diverse and were significantly different in taxonomic composition compared to those from the water column and suspended organic matter.”

Application of Ion Torrent Sequencing to the Assessment of the Effect of Alkali Ballast Water Treatment on Microbial Community Diversity – Masanori Fujimoto – PLOS ONE

“The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry.”

Microbial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, India, assessed by analyzing 16S rRNA and protein-coding genes – Avinash Sharma – Annals of Microbiology

“Bacterial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India, was investigated using a clone library, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and functional genes.”

Microbial community composition and in silico predicted metabolic potential reflect biogeochemical gradients between distinct peatland types – Zuzana Urbanová and Jiří Bárta – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Species richness and microbial diversity increased significantly from bog to fen, with SSF in between, reflecting the variation in pH, nutrient availability and peat decomposability. “

A molecular survey of freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir (Svalbard, 79°N) in summer by using next-generation sequencing – Thangavelu Boopathi – Polar Biology

“In this study, freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir at Ny-Ǻlesund (Svalbard, Norway) were studied using the hypervariable V1–V3 small subunit rRNA and 454 pyrosequencing.”

Built Environment

Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: How do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities? – Gary M. King – Journal of Microbiology

“I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems”

Phages and viruses

Metagenomic Evaluation of the Highly Abundant Human Gut Bacteriophage CrAssphage for Source Tracking of Human Fecal Pollution – Elyse Stachler and Kyle Bibby – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here, 86 publically available metagenomes were surveyed to determine the presence and abundance of crAssphage in various environments, and to identify its utility for source tracking of human fecal pollution.”

Microbes in the news

Understanding the Microbiome and Its Impact on Human Health – Kristine Nally – HCPLive

“Instant polling at an educational session of the 2014 American Academy of Pain Management annual clinical meeting in Phoenix, AZ, revealed that only 40 percent of the approximately 350-person audience was “familiar” with the concept of a microbiome.”

Mining the microbiome for medicines – Set a thief… – The Economist

“Antibiotics are not the only things Dr Donia’s technique might turn up, for the bugs in the human microbiome spit out all sorts of other chemicals that could potentially be put to use as drugs.”

Techniques

Comparative Analysis of Functional Metagenomic Annotation and the Mappability of Short Reads – Rogan Carr and Elhanan Borenstein – MicroBEnet

“We therefore set out to develop a set of ‘best practices’ for our lab for metagenomic sequence annotation and to prove (or disprove) quantitatively that such direct functional annotation of short reads provides a valid functional representation of the sample.”

Science and publishing

Anonymous peer-review comments may spark legal battle – Kelly Servick – Science Insider

“The power of anonymous comments—and the liability of those who make them—is at the heart of a possible legal battle embroiling PubPeer, an online forum launched in October 2012 for anonymous, postpublication peer review.”

Time to Raise the Profile of Women and Minorities in Science – Brian Welle and Megan Smith – Scientific American

“Along these lines, over the past few years, we discovered some pretty ugly news about our beloved Google Doodles. “

Bik’s Picks

Immune system of newborn babies stronger than previously thought – Science Daily

“Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study.”

The Preservation Of Lonesome George – Sarah Fecht – PopSci.com

“Decades after the last giant tortoise was thought to have disappeared from the island of Pinta in the Galapagos, Lonesome George turned up in 1971 and became a conservation icon.”

 Great white sharks partly to blame for otter recovery stall – Peter Fimrite – SF Gate

“Most scientists agree that the number of animals, which are also known as southern sea otters, should be increasing, but hungry predators and a lack of food may be limiting their growth.”

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Microbiome digest, September 19, 2014

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An update from the Cochrane Review Journal on probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis, oral microbiome in apical periodontitis or polycystic ovary syndrome, vaginal and gut microbiome, and bacteria in shrimp, soil, and water.
Pregnancy and birth

Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants – Khalid AlFaleh, and Jasim Anabrees – Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal

“For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 10), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2013).”

Anne Geddes Unveils New Image Of A Baby Born Too Soon – March of Dimes

“Mrs. Geddes donated the image of Alfred, who was born 8 weeks too soon, weighing just two pounds, six ounces, to the March of Dimes, which made the photo the center of its 2014 World Prematurity Day campaign.”

Human oral microbiome

Highly Diverse Microbiota in Dental Root Canals in Cases of Apical Periodontitis (Data of Illumina Sequencing) – Veiko Vengerfeldt – Journal of Endodontics

“Samples were collected under strict aseptic conditions from 12 teeth … and characterized by profiling the microbial community on the basis of the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene by using Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing combinatorial sequence-tagged polymerase chain reaction products.”

Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oral Microbiota and Systemic Antibody Responses – Aliye Akcalı – PLOS ONE

“Salivary levels of seven putative periodontal pathogens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA. “

Human genital microbiome

The Changing Landscape of the Vaginal Microbiome – Bernice Huang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“The vaginal microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem in which the microbiota play a major role in regulating parameters such as pH and in limiting the growth of potentially harmful organisms”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Diet, gut microbes, and genetics in immune function: can we leverage our current knowledge to achieve better outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases? – Vanessa A Leone – Current Opinion in Immunology

“This review summarizes our current understanding of dietary-induced changes in gut microbiota on autoimmunity in the context of IBD.”

The evolving role of the gut microbiome in human disease – Lloyd H. Kasper – FEBS Letters

“We are delighted to introduce this Special Issue, which summarizes the current understanding of the complex relationship between the gut microbiome and the host.”

Virulence genes are a signature of the microbiome in the colorectal tumor microenvironment – Michael B Burns – bioRxiv Preprints

“We characterized the microbiome in 44 primary tumor and 44 patient-matched normal colon tissues. We find that tumors harbor distinct microbial communities compared to nearby healthy tissue.”

Gut Microbiota: A Natural Adjuvant for Vaccination – Oliver Pabst, Mathias Hornef – Immunity

“In this issue of Immunity, Oh et al. (2014) reveal an unappreciated facet of how the microbiota influences immune responses. Immunity to nonadjuvanted vaccines depends on Toll-like-receptor-5-mediated sensing of the microbiota.”

Animal and bioreactor models

TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination – Jason Z. Oh – Immunity

“Vaccination of Trl5−/− mice resulted in reduced antibody titers and lower frequencies of plasma cells, demonstrating a role for TLR5 in immunity to TIV. This was due to a failure to sense host microbiota. “

In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch – Melliana Jonathan – Food Chemistry

“This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. “

Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 – Edna P. Nyangale – Anaerobe

“Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo.”

Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function – Benjamin D Shogan – Microbiome journal

“Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery … and the 6th day following surgery …, we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats.”

General human microbiome

Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection – January T. Salas, Theresa L. Chang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have altered microbiome associated with immune activation that impacts the consquence of disease progression”

Shrimp microbiome

Characterization of the intestinal microbiota in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed diets with different lipid sources – Meiling Zhang – Aquaculture

“an Illumina-based sequencing method was used to examine the intestinal bacterial composition of L. vannamei following six diets with different lipid sources.”

Soil microbiome

Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil –
S. Lladó – Journal of Hazardous Materials

“Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided”

Water microbiome

High-throughput sequencing reveals neustonic and planktonic microbial eukaryote diversity in coastal waters – Joe D. Taylor and Michael Cunliffe – Journal of Phycology

“Here, we use high-throughput 18S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize protist and fungal diversity in the SML at a coastal time-series station and compare with underlying plankton assemblages. “

Microbes in the news

Sex in the Sink: Gene-Swapping Bacteria Are Making New Superbugs – Maggie Fox – NBC News

“Over the past decade, there has been a steady and alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a trend that poses a serious threat to the U.S. medical system,” Segre and colleagues wrote in their report.

Science, publishing, and career

To Get More Out of Science, Show the Rejected Research – Brendan Nyhan – New York Times

“In a new white paper, I propose that the American Political Science Association offer options for articles in a Registered Reports-style format. “

Pushing Women and People of Color Out of Science Before We Go In – Jennifer Selvidge – Huffington Post

“The misogyny and racism I experienced and saw at MIT became more and more concerning, between professors making “get back in the kitchen jokes” and hearing about what seemed to be legions of male PhD student sexually harassing woman undergraduates.”

Bik’s Picks

I want one! These adorable giant African rats detect land mines and TB for a living – Bec Crew – Scientific American

“So yesterday, I adopted an unborn land-mine-detecting African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) from Tanzania. “

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new ‘sleep node’ in the brain – Science Daily

“A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. “

Experts: Science Class Can Dazzle With Less Danger – Dan Elliott – ABC News

“On Sept. 3, 13 people, mostly children, were burned by a methanol-fueled flash fire during a science demonstration at the Terry Lee Wells Nevada Discovery Museum in Reno.”

(Satire) Bono Showcases New Genome Sequencers, The i-LUMINA 6 and i-LUMINA 6 plus – the Allium

“Lead singer with the rock band U2, Bono, revealed the latest in genome sequencing technology at a gala event in the Moscone Center in San Francisco, yesterday.”

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Human microbiome, July 29

Papillomaviruses in human skin, gastric mucosa in cancer patients, breast milk metabolome, microbiome of a human family, and more.

Skin microbiome

Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin
Davit Bzhalava – Nature Scientific Reports

“This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses.”

Gastric microbiome

Differences in Gastric Mucosal Microbiota Profiling in Patients with Chronic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia, and Gastric Cancer Using Pyrosequencing Methods – Chang Soo Eun – Helicobacter

“Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. “

Pregnancy and Birth

Breast milk metabolome characterization in a single phase extraction, multiplatform analytical approach – Alma Villaseñor – Analytical Chemistry

“We conducted this single-phase extraction procedure on a representative pool of BM, and characterized the metabolic composition using LC-QTOF-MS and GC-Q-MS for polar and lipidic metabolites. “

Effects of Bifidobacterial Supplementation to Pregnant Women and Infants in the
Prevention of Allergy Development in Infants and on Fecal Microbiota [PDF]- Tadao Enomoto – Allergology International

“Effects of Bifidobacterial Supplementation to Pregnant Women and Infants in the Prevention of Allergy Development in Infants and on Fecal Microbiota”

Gut microbiome
The dynamics of a family’s gut microbiota reveal variations on a theme – Patrick D Schloss – Microbiome

“Here we study a chronosequence of the gut microbiota found in eight individuals from a family consisting of two parents and six children ranging in age from two months to ten years old.”

Identifying Keystone Species in the Human Gut Microbiome from Metagenomic Timeseries Using Sparse Linear Regression – Charles K. Fisher – PLOS ONE

“Here we introduce an approach, Learning Interactions from MIcrobial Time Series (LIMITS), that overcomes these obstacles. LIMITS uses sparse linear regression with boostrap aggregation to infer a discrete-time Lotka-Volterra model for microbial dynamics. “

Antivirulence Activity of the Human Gut Metabolome – L. Caetano M. Antunes – mBio

“We found that a secreted molecule produced by clostridia acts as a strong repressor of Salmonella virulence, obliterating expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 as well as host cell invasion.”

 Metagenomic Identification of a Novel Salt Tolerance Gene from the Human Gut Microbiome Which Encodes a Membrane Protein with Homology to a brp/blh-Family β-Carotene 15,15′-Monooxygenase – Eamonn P. Culligan – PLOS ONE

“Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. “

Review: Archaea and the human gut: New beginning of an old story [DOC]- Gaci N – World Journal of Gastroenterology

“Here we provide an updated census of the archaeal diversity associated to human GIT and their possible role in the gut physiology and health.”

 

Animal models of human microbiome and disease

Maternal high protein or prebiotic fiber diets affect maternal milk composition and gut microbiota in rat dams and their offspring – Megan C. Hallam – Obesity

“Fecal microbiota was analyzed in dams at parturition and 2 weeks post-partum and in offspring at 5 and 22 weeks along with cecal digesta at termination.”

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