June 27, 2020

Shalom from Israel and a Happy world microbiome day!

Yes, it is a true day! celebrating the huge diversity of microbes around us, above us, below us and inside us. Check the day’s official website for more information, and take the weekend to appreciate this amazing field and your own personal contribution to advancing our knowledge about microbial communities on our planet.

Personally, I did my undergrad in Ecology and Evolution, confidence that I’ll my scientific career will focus on plant ecology and distribution, or at least large animals. Microbiology classes and introduction labs bored me, and I did my best to avoid this topic. But all of a sudden, during my Master’s degree (where I worked on a pathogenicity mechanism of postharvest disease-causing bacteria), I fell in love with microbiology in general, and specific bacterial communities. The huge untapped diversity, the unbelievable functions and the amazing interactions needed to maintain a functional community of these invisible inhabitants just fascinated me. Today, as a Ph.D. student exploring secondary metabolites gene clusters in soil and root microbiome, I’m a super-fan of the bacterial world.

How did you end up being microbiome suckers? Feel free to share your stories here as a comment, on MD FB page, or directly on tweeter.

Today’s digest include several microbimoe papers of animal midels (including ‘dirty mice’), diseased tomatoes taxonomical and functional microbiome profile, AND- a sweet reminder of the pre-COVID-19 world, with an analysis of the dust microbiome of a plane (remember this vehicle?).

Human and Animal Models microbiome

**Microbial transmission in animal social networks and the social microbiome, Amar Sarkar , Nat. Eco. Evo.

Does entry to center-based childcare affect gut microbial colonization in young infants?, Gerben D. A. Hermes, Scientific Reports

Serum metabolites reflecting gut microbiome
alpha diversity predict type 2 diabetes
, Cristina Menni, Gut microbes

**New Insights into the Immune System Using Dirty Mice, Sara E. Hamilton, J. Immunology.

Optimization of cerebrospinal fluid microbial metagenomic sequencing diagnostics,Josefin Olausson , bioRxiv

Sleep fragmentation increases blood pressure and is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in rats, Katherine.Maki, Phys. Geno.

Animal microbiome

Environment Shapes the Microbiome of the Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria, Hamutahl Cohen, Microbial Ecology

The gut mycobiome of healthy mice is shaped by the environment and shapes metabolic outcomes in response to diet, Tahliyah S. Mims, bioRxiv

Microbial communities network analysis of anaerobic reactors fed with bovine and swine slurry, Eliane Cristina Gruszka Vendruscolo, Sci. Tot. Env.

Metagenomic analysis reveals significant differences in microbiome and metabolic profiles in the rumen of sheep fed low N diet with increased urea supplementation, Zhipeng Li, FEMS Micro. Eco.

Soil and Plant microbiome

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Tomatoes of Healthy and Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Xin Zhou, Microbial Ecology

Insights into drylands biocrust microbiome: geography, soil depth, and crust type affect biocrust microbial communities and networks in Mojave Desert, USA, Nuttapon Pombubpa, FEMS Micro. Eco.

Exploring the Lignin Catabolism Potential of Soil-Derived Lignocellulolytic Microbial Consortia by a Gene-Centric Metagenomic Approach, Laura Díaz-García, Microbial Ecology

Shotgun Metagenomics Of Dust Microbiome From Flight Deck And Cabin In Civil Aviation Aircraft, Yu Sun, Indoor Air

Bioinformatics

MicroNiche: an R package for assessing microbial niche breadth and overlap from amplicon sequencing data, D.R. Finn , FEMS Micro. Eco.

May 13, 2020

Happy Wednesday, y’all! Before we get to today’s papers, I wanted to let everyone know about a webinar happening on June 3rd at 12:00 PM E.T. called “Unraveling the link between the gut microbiome, human health, and disease.” Tomoya Yamashita, M.D., Ph.D. from Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine and Meredith Hullar, Ph.D. from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center will both be speaking. If you’re interested you can register here.

Now onto the highlights! We have some super interesting research to share with you today including an examination of the efficacy of transplanting the human gut microbiota into mice and its impact on studying immunological responses; evidence that early-life intestinal colonizers may influence brain development; and a new tool, pepFUNK, which uses a peptide-centric approach to identify KEGG pathways in metaproteomic datasets. Enjoy!

General microbiome
Human Microbiota-Transplanted C57BL/6 Mice and Offspring Display Reduced Establishment of Key Bacteria and Reduced Immune Stimulation Compared to Mouse Microbiota-Transplantation. Lundberg, R. et al. Scientific Reports.

Review: The role of the microbiome in the neurobiology of social behaviour. Sarkar, A. et al. Biological Reviews.

Pregnancy and early life
Neonatal diet alters fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles at different ages in infants fed breast milk or formula. Brink, L.R. et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Investigating Bifidobacteria and Human Milk Oligosaccharide Composition of Lactating Mothers. Lugli, A.G. et al. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Human respiratory microbiome
Bioorthogonal Non-Canonical Amino Acid Tagging Reveals Translationally Active Subpopulations of the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota. Valentini, T.D. et al. Nature Communications.

Human gut microbiome
Longitudinal Analysis of Serum Cytokine Levels and Gut Microbial Abundance Links IL-17/IL-22 With Clostridia and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Zhou, X. et al. Diabetes.

Berberine and Its Structural Analogs Have Differing Effects on Functional Profiles of Individual Gut Microbiomes. Li, L. et al. Gut Microbes.

Animal experiments
Developmental Signatures of Microbiota-Derived Metabolites in the Mouse Brain. Swann, J.R. et al. Metabolites.

Bifidobacteria Shape Host Neural Circuits During Postnatal Development by Promoting Synapse Formation and Microglial Function. Luck, B. et al. Scientific Reports.

Glycerol Monolaurate, an Analogue to a Factor Secreted by Lactobacillus, Is Virucidal Against Enveloped Viruses, Including HIV-1. Welch, J.L. et al. mBio.

Gut Microbiome Communication With Bone Marrow Regulates Susceptibility to Amebiasis. Burgess, S.L. et al. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

The Protective Effects of 2′-Fucosyllactose Against E. Coli O157 Infection Are Mediated by the Regulation of Gut Microbiota and the Inhibition of Pathogen Adhesion. Wang Y. et al. Nutrients.

Capsaicin Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Enhancing Glucagon-Like peptide-1 Secretion Through the Regulation of Bile Acid Metabolism via the Remodeling of the Gut Microbiota in Male Mice. Hui, S. et al. FASEB Journal.

Microbiota-Induced Type I Interferons Instruct a Poised Basal State of Dendritic Cells. Schaupp L. et al. Cell.

Intratumoral Accumulation of Gut Microbiota Facilitates CD47-based Immunotherapy via STING Signaling. Shi, Y. et al. Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Animal microbiome
Housefly (Musca domestica L.) associated microbiota across different life stages. de Jonge, N. et al. Scientific Reports.

Honey-bee–associated prokaryotic viral communities reveal wide viral diversity and a profound metabolic coding potential. Deboutte, W. et al. PNAS.

Bayesian Modeling Reveals Host Genetics Associated With Rumen Microbiota Jointly Influence Methane Emission in Dairy Cows. Zhang, Q. et al. ISME Journal.

Review: The role of the gut microbiome in sustainable teleost aquaculture. Perry, W.B. et al. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Interactions between social groups of colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus) explain similarities in their gut microbiomes. Wikberg E.C. Animal Behaviour.

Plant, root, and soil microbiome
Global Warming Shifts the Composition of the Abundant Bacterial Phyllosphere Microbiota as Indicated by a Cultivation Dependent and Independent Study of the Grassland Phyllosphere of a Long-Term Warming Field-Experiment. Aydogan, E.L. et al. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Probiotics / prebiotics
A Human-Origin Probiotic Cocktail Ameliorates Aging-Related Leaky Gut and Inflammation via Modulating the Microbiota/Taurine/Tight Junction Axis. Ahmadi, S. et al. JCI Insight.

Bioinformatics
SHOGUN: A Modular, Accurate, and Scalable Framework for Microbiome Quantification. Hillmann, B. et al. Bioinformatics.

pepFunk: A Tool for Peptide-Centric Functional Analysis of Metaproteomic Human Gut Microbiome Studies. Simopoulos, C.M.A. et al. Bioinformatics.

Microbes in the news
Mapping the Microbiome in Saliva of COVID-19 Patients.

Inside the Belly of the Horse – Doctoral candidate Alexa Johnson goes inside the gut to investigate equine health.

June 13, 2019

Good morning everyone!

Today the focus is almost entirely on environmental microbiology- plant, soil and water habitats. Check also the methods paper regarding activating silent BGCs (a true challenge for drug discovery).

General Microbiology

A multiphase theory for spreading microbial swarms and films, Siddarth Srinivasan, eLIFE

Methods

Advances in microbial culturing conditions to activate silent biosynthetic gene clusters for novel metabolite production, Hailey A. Tomm, J. Industrial Microbiology % Biotechnology

A set of modular and integrative vectors for synthetic biology in Streptomyces, Celine Aubry, AEM

Revealing microbial assemblage structure in the human gut microbiome using latent Dirichlet allocation, Shion Hosoda, bioRxiv

Animal microbiome

The Insect Virome: Opportunities and Challenges, BC Bonning, Curr. Issues Mol Bio.

Host species and site of collection shape the microbiota of Rift Valley fever vectors in Kenya, David P. Tchouassi, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Microbiomes of stony and soft deep-sea corals share rare core bacteria, Christina A. Kellogg, Microbiome

Plant Microbiome

Identification and Characterization of the Core Rice Seed Microbiome, Alexander W. Eyre, Phytobiome

Microbiota Associated with Sclerotia of Soilborne Fungal Pathogens – A Novel Source of Biocontrol Agents Producing Bioactive Volatiles, Pascal Mulner, Phytobiome

ffects of agricultural management on rhizosphere microbial structure and function in processing tomato, Jennifer E. Schmidt, AEM

Environmental microbiome

Methylotrophs and Methylotroph Populations for Chloromethane Degradation, F Bringel, Curr Issues Mol Bio.

Diversity of Methane Cycling Microorganisms in Soils and Their Relation to Oxygen, C Knief, Curr Issues Mol Bio.

Microbiomes in Ground Water and Alternative Irrigation Water, and Spinach Microbiomes Impacted by Irrigation with Different Types of Water, Ganyu Gu, Phytobiome

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Microbiome in the market

Macrogen Announces Strategic Investment in Australian Microbiome Company, Microba

New DuPont research pact has animal microbiome focus

Human microbiome, July 22

Transcriptome in periodontitis, metabolomic analysis of breath in IBD patients, cystic fibrosis microbiome, and Clostridium difficile.

Human microbiome general

Review: Deciphering the tête-à-tête between the microbiota and the immune system – Neeraj K. Surana and Dennis L. Kasper – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in immunologic development, highlighting mechanistic principles that can guide future work.”

Meeting report: Human microbiome science: vision for the future, Bethesda, MD, July 24 to 26, 2013 – Jacques Ravel and many others – Microbiome

“This report summarizes the presentations but also describes what is needed for human microbiome research to move forward and deliver medical translational applications.”

Metabolomics

Metabolomic analysis of breath volatile organic compounds reveals unique breathprints in children with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study – N. Patel – Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

“Exhaled breath was collected and analysed using a selective ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) to identify new markers or patterns of IBD.”

Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation, and insulin sensitivity are associated with physical function in functionally-limited older adults – Michael S. Lustgarten – Aging Cell

“Collectively, these data suggest that gut microbial metabolism, PPAR-α activation, and insulin sensitivity may be involved in mechanisms that underlie physical function in functionally-limited older adults.”

Oral microbiome

Community-wide transcriptome of the oral microbiome in subjects with and without periodontitis – Ana E Duran-Pinedo – ISME J

“We report here the in situ genome-wide transcriptome of the subgingival microbiome in six periodontally healthy individuals and seven individuals with periodontitis.”

Respiratory microbiome

Predominant pathogen competition and core microbiota divergence in chronic airway infection – Geraint B Rogers – ISME Journal

“..we analysed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data generated previously from 60 adult bronchiectasis patients, whose airway microbiota was dominated by either P. aeruginosa or H. influenzae.”

Pyrosequencing reveals transient cystic fibrosis lung microbiome changes with intravenous antibiotics – Daniel J. Smith – European Respiratory Journal

“Microbial community profiles were derived through analysis of bacterial-derived 16S ribosomal RNA by pyrosequencing and changes over time were compared.”

Review: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice – Geraint B Rogers – Thorax

“In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. “

Propionibacterium-Produced Coproporphyrin III Induces Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation and Biofilm Formation – Michael S. Wollenberg – mBio

“We observed that crude extracts of cell-free conditioned medium from Propionibacterium spp. induce S. aureus aggregation in culture. “

Gut microbiome

Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection – Susana Fuentes – ISME Journal

“Global composition and network analysis of the microbiota was performed in faecal samples from nine patients with recurrent CDI. Analyses were performed before and after duodenal donor faeces infusion, and during a follow-up of 10 weeks. The microbiota data were compared with that of the healthy donors. “

Review: Clostridium difficile and the microbiota – Anna M. Seekatz and Vincent B. Young – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“Both human and animal models have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota’s capability of providing colonization resistance against C. difficile.”

Vaginal microbiome

Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance – Suleyman Yildirim – ISME Journal

“We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. … humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity.

Semen microbiome

The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection – Cindy M. Liu – PLOS Pathogens

“HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART.”

Antibiotic perturbation and microbiome

Bacteria, phages and pigs: the effects of in-feed antibiotics on the microbiome at different gut locations – Torey Looft – ISME Journal

“In this study, we defined the lumenal and mucosal bacterial communities from the small intestine (ileum) and large intestine (cecum and colon) plus feces, and characterized the effects of in-feed antibiotics (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine and penicillin (ASP250)) on these communities. “

Impact of Antibiotics on the Intestinal Microbiota and on the Treatment of Shiga-toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infections – Szych, Jolanta – Current Pharmaceutical Design

“This review evaluates the current literature based on the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota and the critical role of intestinal bacteria in controlling infection and subsequent clinical disease caused by STEC and Salmonella, and the transmissibility of these important pathogens”

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General microbiology and science, July 21

Pyrosequencing reproducibility, Microbes in the News, plague, tatoos, and Dr. Bik’s Picks.

Techniques

Reproducibility of pyrosequencing data for biodiversity assessment in complex communities – Aibin Zhan – Methods in Ecology and Evolution

“Here we evaluated reproducibility by analyzing 454 pyrosequenced biological replicates of two complex plankton communities collected from one freshwater port and one marine port. We also tested whether reproducibility potentially influences biodiversity estimates, notably α- and β-diversity.”

Microbial Ecology / Bioinformatics

Synthetic microbial consortia: from systematic analysis to construction and applications
Hao Song – Chem Soc Rev

“Herein, we first reviewed binary interaction modes of microorganisms in microbial consortia and their underlying molecular mechanisms, which lay the foundation of programming cell–cell interactions in synthetic microbial consortia. “

Microbes in the News

Be nice to your germs, they keep you alive – Nicky Phillips – Sydney Morning Herald

“Without a well-balanced community of these microscopic critters we would not survive, says Holmes. ‘‘We shouldn’t view them as a separate thing, we should view them as a part of us,’’ he says.”

Desert Rat Relies on Microbes To Detoxify Its Deadly Meals – Ed Yong – National Geographic

“When Kevin Kohl learned about the woodrat, he wondered if bacteria in the rodent’s gut might help it to tolerate its otherwise lethal diet… The idea made sense. Kohl just needed to test it.”

Four Cases of Life-Threatening Plague Found in Colorado –  Sonali Basak and Jennifer Oldham – Bloomberg.com

“Three more plague cases were found in Colorado, a week after the first infection of the deadliest form of the disease was reported in the state in a decade.”

Tattoo Inks, Needles Recalled Due To Bacterial Contamination
Kristen McConnaughey – SiouxLandMatters.com

“”Extreme risks. I mean we’re talking death. There’s things out there that can kill you,” says Scott Alphawolf Davis, a tattoo artist.”

Science and career

Happy Thoughts May Help Postdocs Handle Stress – Rachel Bernstein – Science Careers

“It could be something as simple as watching a funny TV show or going out for a walk or jog. These little things really add up.”

Women in Science

Why is STEM Still a 4-Letter Word for Women? 7 Leaders Weigh In – Ravishly

“Women receive fewer invitations to professional meetings, and research paper acceptance, pay scales and promotion to tenure favor males over females.“

Dr. Bik’s Picks

Sixth-Grader’s Science Fair Finding Shocks Ecologists – NPR All Things Considered

“When 12-year-old Lauren Arrington heard about her sixth-grade science project, she knew she wanted to study lionfish. Growing up in Jupiter, Fla., she saw them in the ocean while snorkeling and fishing with her dad.”

Editorial: Science speaking up – Pensacola News Journal

“The letter read: “We note you have been asked several times about how, as Governor, you will handle the issue of climate change. You responded that you are ‘not a scientist.’ We are scientists and we would like the opportunity to explain what is at stake for our state.””

Book Review: Raising a Glass to Chemistry: ‘Proof’ Drinks in the Science of Alcohol – Alessandra Montalto – The New York Times

“How important is yeast? In 1996, it became the first living organism to have its DNA sequenced. As one modern alehouse puts it in a dubious ad: “Yeast — not just for infections anymore.””

New Allele Hopeful of Making The Big Time – The Allium – Science News You Won’t Read Nowhere Else

“Right now, I am at a low frequency and nobody really knows about me. Tomorrow I could be gone. It is that tough!”

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Human microbiome digest, July 21

Today we have articles on two microbiome pioneers: Rob Knight and Jeffrey Gordon, as well as papers on periodontitis, eczema, Crohn’s disease, and Helicobacter.

General microbiome

The effects of the microbiota on the host immune system – Jacek Karczewski – Autoimmunity

“This review is focused on host–microbiota interactions, specifically on influence of bacterial-derived signals on immune cell function and the mechanisms by which these signals modulate the development and progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.”

Imposition of encapsulated non-indigenous probiotics into intestine may disturbs human core microbiome – Abolfazl Barzegari – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We envision that the lack of survivability of some of the probiotic candidates within such hostile milieu of GIT may negatively affect the coevolving process of bacteria in human host and hence impact the endpoint health promotion goals.”

40 under 40: Rob Knight – Cell

“Some dead scientists who I would have loved to have had the opportunity to work with include Carl Woese, Richard Feynman, Francis Crick, Erwin Chargaff, Sewall Wright, Benjamin Franklin, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Boyle, Eratosthenes, and Lucretius. These lists are intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive; according to my NSF Conflict of Interest form I have written grants or papers with about 750 people, all of whom I admire.”

Jeffrey I. Gordon, M.D., Will Receive Pitt’s Dickson Prize at Science 2014—Sustain It! – University of Pittsburgh

“A scientist who has explored how the tens of trillions of microbes that live in the gastrointestinal tract and their genes influence human physiology, metabolism and nutritional status will receive the University of Pittsburgh’s 2014 Dickson Prize in Medicine.”

Oral microbiome

Quantitative analysis of classical and new putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm: a case–control study – N. N. Al-hebshi – Journal of Periodontal Research

“Pooled subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Taqman q-PCR assays were used to determine the absolute and relative counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, oral Synergistetes and oral TM7s. “

Skin microbiome

Review: Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema – Giuseppe Baviera – BioMed Research International

“This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin.”

Gastric microbiome

Microbial Profile of the Stomach: Comparison between Normal Mucosa and Cancer Tissue in the Same Patient – Incheol Seo – Journal of Bacteriology and Virology

“In this study, we identified differences in the microbial communities between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa by comparing the microbiomes of tissues from the same patients. The clustering analysis results showed different bacterial communities between normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer.”

Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori – Eitaro Aihara – PLOS Pathogens

“Using anesthetized mice in which we have induced microscopic damage to the stomach surface, we find that H. pylori is able to rapidly detect and navigate towards this damage site. Within minutes, bacterial accumulation slows repair of the damage.”

Gut microbiome

Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome
Yue-Dong Gao – BioMed Research International

“we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. “

Analysis of Gut Microbiome and Diet Modification in Patients with Crohn’s Disease [PDF] – Sumathi Sankaran Walters – Symbiosis

“Fecal samples were obtained from patients with Crohn’s disease in a pilot diet crossover trial comparing the effects of a specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) versus a low residue diet (LRD) on the composition and complexity of the gut microbiota and resolution of IBD symptoms. The gut microbiota composition was assessed using a high-density DNA microarray PhyloChip “

Review: Managing the manager: Gut microbes, stem cells and metabolism
M. Serino – Diabetes & Metabolism

“The LPS-sensitive cell types can be seen within bone marrow-derived cells (BMC), which are involved in the development of inflammation in the adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic mice. “

 

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Human and bioreactor microbiome, July 18

An upcoming radio show on the human microbiome that looks interesting, dental calculus from prehistoric skeletons (without bacterial analysis unfortunately), and animals models of microbiome research.

General microbiome

City Visions: Exploring the Human Microbiome – KALW public radio – Monday July 21 at 7 pm at 91.7 FM in San Francisco

“Join host David Onek as we explore these questions and more with Bay Area researchers who are leading the new field of microbiome exploration and discovery.”

Oral microbiome

Dental Calculus Reveals Unique Insights into Food Items, Cooking and Plant Processing in Prehistoric Central Sudan – Stephen Buckley – PLOS ONE

“Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. “

Animal models of gut microbiota and disease

Gut Microbial Metabolism Drives Transformation of Msh2-Deficient Colon Epithelial Cells – Antoaneta Belcheva – Cell

“We report that altering the microbiota composition reduces CRC in APCMin/+MSH2−/− mice, and that a diet reduced in carbohydrates phenocopies this effect. “

Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota – Jeffrey D Galley – BMC Microbiology

“..we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice.”

Bioreactor microbiome

Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE)-degrading microbial communities in enrichments from polluted environments – Yoann Le Digabel – Journal of Hazardous Materials

“Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were prepared from each enrichment. The analyses of the DNA sequences obtained showed different taxonomic compositions with a majority of Proteobacteria in three cases.”

Microbial community structure of wastewater treatment subjected to high mortality rate due to ozonation of return activated sludge – S. Isazadeh – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The bacterial community structures were investigated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The structures remained highly similar throughout the experiment despite the ozone treatment.”

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Foxp3+ T Cells Regulate Immunoglobulin A Selection and Facilitate Diversification of Bacterial Species Responsible for Immune Homeostasis

Screen Shot 2014-07-18 at 2.08.20 PMFoxp3+ T Cells Regulate Immunoglobulin A Selection and Facilitate Diversification of Bacterial Species Responsible for Immune Homeostasis – Shimpei Kawamoto – Immunity

“Here we show that in mice, Foxp3+ T cells contributed to diversification of gut microbiota, particularly of species belonging to Firmicutes”

 

Human microbiome, July 15

Not-always-rare taxa in a wide range of ecosystems, microbiome in early life, focus on Lactobacillus and Bacteroides and microbiota and inflammation.

General microbiome

Science Webinar: The promise of the microbiome: Function and dysfunction in humans and beyond – David A. Relman, Jack A. Gilbert, Rob Knight

“Microbiomes–the distinct microbial populations that colonize an array of bodily and environmental niches–are rapidly gaining prominence in numerous fields of research. “

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.18PM, Jul 15Conditionally Rare Taxa Disproportionately Contribute to Temporal Changes in Microbial Diversity – Ashley Shade – mBio

“Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure.”

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.20PM, Jul 15Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut – Hélène Licandro-Seraut – PNAS

“By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. “

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.21PM, Jul 15Tuning transcription of nutrient utilization genes to catabolic rate promotes growth in a gut bacterium – Varsha Raghavan – Molecular Microbiology

“We report that the regulator controlling utilization of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the mammalian gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is activated by an intermediate in CS breakdown rather than CS itself.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.38PM, Jul 15 1Review: The Microbiome in Early Life: Self-Completion and Microbiota Protection as Health Priorities – Rodney R. Dietert – Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology

“This minireview considers the benefits of refocusing attention away from treating the patient as a mammalian human to managing the complete patient: a majority microbial superorganism. “

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.38PM, Jul 15Review: Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation – Charlene W. J. Africa – Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health

“This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. “

Oral microbiome

Review: Acquisition and maturation of oral microbiome throughout childhood: An update – Benedita Sampaio-Maia – Dental Research Journal

“This revision presents an overview of this renewed knowledge on oral microbial community acquisition in the newborn and on the evolution of this microbiome to adulthood. “

 

Animal models of human microbiome and disease

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.17PM, Jul 15Commensal microbes drive intestinal inflammation by IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells through ICOSL and OX40L costimulation in the absence of B7-1 and B7-2 – Lijun Xin – PNAS

“Here we show that B7 deprivation in mice overrides the necessity for Tregs in averting systemic autoimmunity and inflammation in extraintestinal tissues, whereas peripherally induced Tregs retained in the absence of B7 selectively mitigate intestinal inflammation caused by Th17 effector CD4+ T cells. “

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Human microbiome, July 14

Ethnic variation in vaginal microbiomes, effect of chemotherapy on human milk, response of (murine) microbiota to infection.

Oral microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.23PM, Jul 14Advancements toward a Systems Level Understanding of the Human Oral Microbiome – Jeffrey S. Mclean – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them.”

Vaginal microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.24PM, Jul 14Ethnic Variations in Cervical Cytokine Concentrations and Vaginal Flora During Pregnancy – Riana Dutt – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“Semi-quantitative vaginal cultures and concentrations of cervical cytokines were compared between Caucasian and non-Caucasian women.”

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.25PM, Jul 14A functional metabolic map of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a beneficial human gut microbe – Almut Heinken – Journal of Bacteriology

“In this study, we present an integrated, iterative approach of computational modeling, in vitro experiments, metabolomics and genomic analysis to accelerate the identification of metabolic capabilities for poorly characterized (anaerobic) microorganisms.”

Pregnancy and birth

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.26PM, Jul 14Effect of chemotherapy on the microbiota and metabolome of human milk, a case report – Camilla Urbaniak – Microbiome

“Mature milk was collected every two weeks over a four month period from a lactating woman undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Mature milk was also collected from healthy lactating women for comparison. Microbial profiles were analyzed by 16S sequencing and the metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.”

Animal models

Clara Belzer miceDynamics of the Microbiota in Response to Host Infection – Clara Belzer – PLOS ONE

“Employing a murine model of infectious colitis with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, we generated a 2-month time-series of 16S rDNA gene profiles, and quantitatively cultured commensals, from multiple intestinal sites in infected and uninfected mice. “

Prune juice animal modelCarbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model – Giuliana D. Noratto – PLOS ONE

“Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats.”

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