Microbiome Digest, October 20, 2014

Oral core microbiome, symbionts in crabs, sponges, and Drosophila, metabolites in dolphin’s breath, and retraction of a paper favored by Dr. Oz.

Pregnancy and birth

NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes – Sathyaprasad C Burjonrappa, Brian Shea, Diya Goorah – Journal of Neonatal Surgery

“There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event.”

Human oral microbiome

Intraindividual variation in core microbiota in peri-implantitis and periodontitis – Noriko Maruyama – Scientific Reports

“To improve our knowledge of the different communities of complex oral microbiota, we compared the microbial features between peri-implantitis and periodontitis in 20 patients with both diseases. “

Antimicrobial Effect of Lemongrass Oil against Oral Malodor Microorganisms and the Pilot Study of Safety and Efficacy of Lemongrass Mouthrinse on Oral Malodor – Panitta Satthanakul – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Antimicrobial activity of LG mouthrinse was examined against common odorigenic microorganisms using broth microdilution assay and the disc diffusion method. A randomized double-blind clinical study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers.”

Animal microbiome

Molecular evidence of digestion and absorption of epibiotic bacterial community by deep-sea crab Shinkaia crosnieri – Tomo-o Watsuji – ISME Journal

“A phylogenetic analysis showed that many of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained from the intestine were closely related to the sequences of the epibionts, thus they were probably derived from the epibionts.”

* In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors – Peter D. Newell – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. “

* Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella – Marie L. Cuvelier – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing.”

* Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality – Fan Zhang – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. “

Plant microbiome

Reduced dependence of rhizosphere microbiome on plant-derived carbon in 32-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilized soils – Chao Ai – Soil Biology and Biochemistry

“Wheat rhizosphere microbiome was studied by stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing.”

Environmental microbiome

Characterization of bacterial communities associated with seasonal water masses from Tongyoung in South Sea of Korea – Sung-Suk Suh – Ocean Science Journal

“In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with two different water masses from Tongyoung in the South Sea of Korea. “

Bacterial community structure of a lab-scale anammox membrane bioreactor – Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez – Biotechnology Progress

“In this study, next-generation sequencing techniques have been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of this MBR Anammox for the first time ever. “

Metagenomics & Bioinformatics

GenomePeek: What exactly is that sequencing data? – Katelyn McNair – MicroBEnet

“I wrote the initial version of GenomePeek, and tested it with various data sets using this student’s data. I quickly found that some genes work better than others, and so currently the four genes analyzed are: 16S, recA, rpoB, and groEL.”

Metabolomics

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath – Alexander A. Aksenov – Analytical Chemistry

“We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). “

Proteomics

Symbiosis, Dysbiosis and Rebiosis – the value of metaproteomics in human microbiome monitoring – Lei Mao and Jacqueline Franke – Proteomics

“After a brief review of the history and state-of-the-art of metaproteomics in the field of environmental health research, focus of this perspective article will be put on the role of cross-species joint efforts in symbiosis, dysbiosis and rebiosis of the human gut during human development, pathogenesis and aging.”

More microbiology

Bridging the gap between viable but non-culturable and antibiotic persistent bacteria – Mesrop Ayrapetyan – Trends in Microbiology

“This discussion is intended to stimulate discourse about these seemingly different but very similar dormant states.”

* Phylogenomic Reconstruction Indicates Mitochondrial Ancestor Was an Energy Parasite
Zhang Wang, Martin Wu – PLOS ONE

“Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria.”

Real-time video imaging as a new and rapid tool for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method: a paradigm for evaluating resistance to imipenem and identifying extended-spectrum β-lactamases – Stéphanie Le Page – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

“..we present here for the first time video movies of the appearance of the diameter of inhibition by the disk diffusion in real-time. “

Microbes in the news

Can Microbes Help Feed the World? – Amy Mayer – BioScience

“To help meet the challenge for food, scientists are using new technologies to better understand the role that soil microbes might play in bolstering agricultural production. “

Dentists Want To See Studies On Pot-Cavity Link – CBS Local

“Patients are experiencing tooth decay, expensive dentist bills and the pain of dealing with it all. The biggest side effect is dry mouth.”

Bik’s Picks

Brain surgery, by robot, through the cheek – Science Daily

“Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the engineers have designed the system so that much of it can be made using 3-D printing in order to keep the price low.”

* Hilarious cartoons on Imgur: Real Scientists vs. Movie Scientists 

* Authors retract green coffee bean diet paper touted by Dr. Oz – Ivan Oransky – Retraction Watch

“Two authors of a 2012 paper sponsored by a company that made grand claims about green coffee bean extract’s abilities to help people lose weight have retracted it. The study was cited by The Dr. Oz Show, and last month it cost the company a $3.5 million settlement with the Feds.”

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Microbiome digest, September 22, 2014

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Temporal stability of the microbiomes of 85 adults, bacteria in breast milk, vaginal microbiome during pregnancy, water microbiomes, and Bik’s Picks.

Human microbiome general

Temporal variability is a personalized feature of the human microbiome – Gilberto E Flores – PeerJ PrePrints

“Here we address this gap in understanding by profiling the forehead, gut (fecal), palm, and tongue microbial communities in 85 adults, weekly over three months.”

Pregnancy and birth

It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant – Lars Bode – Advances in Nutrition

“This article is a summary of the symposium “It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA.”

Microorganisms in the Female Genital Tract during Pregnancy: Tolerance versus Pathogenesis – Bruna de Andrade Ramos – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“We review the state of knowledge of microbe–host interactions in gestational tissues and highlight mechanisms that promote tolerance or pathogenesis.”

Determinants and pattern of care seeking for preterm newborns in a rural Bangladeshi cohort – Rashed Shah – BMC Health Services Research

“Only one-fifth (19.7%) of preterm newborns were taken to seek either preventive or curative health care.”

Human oral microbiome

Microbial signature profiles of periodontally healthy and diseased patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analysed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Nutrients with Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties – Céline Druart – Advances in Nutrition

“In this review, we describe how changes in the composition and/or activity of the gut microbiota by administration of nutrients with probiotic or prebiotic properties can modulate host gene expression and metabolism and thereby positively influence host adipose tissue development and related metabolic disorders.”

Mammal microbiome

Resistance to Antibiotics of Clinical Relevance in the Fecal Microbiota of Mexican Wildlife – Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate – PLOS ONE

“Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys, spider monkeys, tapirs and felids living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence.“

Bird microbiome

Do feather-degrading bacteria actually degrade feather colour? No significant effects of plumage microbiome modifications on feather colouration in wild great tits – Staffan Jacob – Naturwissenschaften

“Here, we tested whether (i) keratinolytic microorganisms can degrade feathers in vivo and thus modify the colour of feathers during the nesting period and (ii) whether feather microorganisms have a long-term effect on the investment in colouration of newly moulted feathers.”

Plant microbiome

Impact of swapping soils on the endophytic bacterial communities of pre-domesticated, ancient and modern maize – David Johnston-Monje – BMC Plant Biology

“The impact of these soil swaps on founder bacterial endophyte communities was tested using 16S-rDNA profiling, culturing and microbial trait phenotyping.“

Microbiota in Wheat Roots, Rhizosphere and Soil in Crops Grown in Organic and Other Production Systems – Leszek Lenc – Journal of Phytopathology

“The other two systems were intermediate, with microbial communities suggesting that the conventional system produced a slightly more suppressive environment than the integrated system. “

Soil microbiome

Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in Bleached Mottles of Tropical Podzols –
K. J. Silva, P. Vidal-Torrado, M. R. Lambais – Microbial Ecology

“In this study, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities along three Brazilian coastal podzol profiles, as well as in bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity, using 16S rRNA gene profiling.”

Water microbiome

Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river – Amanda McCormick – Environmental Science & Technology

“Results from high-throughput sequencing showed that bacterial assemblages colonizing microplastic within the river were less diverse and were significantly different in taxonomic composition compared to those from the water column and suspended organic matter.”

Application of Ion Torrent Sequencing to the Assessment of the Effect of Alkali Ballast Water Treatment on Microbial Community Diversity – Masanori Fujimoto – PLOS ONE

“The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry.”

Microbial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, India, assessed by analyzing 16S rRNA and protein-coding genes – Avinash Sharma – Annals of Microbiology

“Bacterial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India, was investigated using a clone library, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and functional genes.”

Microbial community composition and in silico predicted metabolic potential reflect biogeochemical gradients between distinct peatland types – Zuzana Urbanová and Jiří Bárta – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Species richness and microbial diversity increased significantly from bog to fen, with SSF in between, reflecting the variation in pH, nutrient availability and peat decomposability. “

A molecular survey of freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir (Svalbard, 79°N) in summer by using next-generation sequencing – Thangavelu Boopathi – Polar Biology

“In this study, freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir at Ny-Ǻlesund (Svalbard, Norway) were studied using the hypervariable V1–V3 small subunit rRNA and 454 pyrosequencing.”

Built Environment

Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: How do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities? – Gary M. King – Journal of Microbiology

“I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems”

Phages and viruses

Metagenomic Evaluation of the Highly Abundant Human Gut Bacteriophage CrAssphage for Source Tracking of Human Fecal Pollution – Elyse Stachler and Kyle Bibby – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here, 86 publically available metagenomes were surveyed to determine the presence and abundance of crAssphage in various environments, and to identify its utility for source tracking of human fecal pollution.”

Microbes in the news

Understanding the Microbiome and Its Impact on Human Health – Kristine Nally – HCPLive

“Instant polling at an educational session of the 2014 American Academy of Pain Management annual clinical meeting in Phoenix, AZ, revealed that only 40 percent of the approximately 350-person audience was “familiar” with the concept of a microbiome.”

Mining the microbiome for medicines – Set a thief… – The Economist

“Antibiotics are not the only things Dr Donia’s technique might turn up, for the bugs in the human microbiome spit out all sorts of other chemicals that could potentially be put to use as drugs.”

Techniques

Comparative Analysis of Functional Metagenomic Annotation and the Mappability of Short Reads – Rogan Carr and Elhanan Borenstein – MicroBEnet

“We therefore set out to develop a set of ‘best practices’ for our lab for metagenomic sequence annotation and to prove (or disprove) quantitatively that such direct functional annotation of short reads provides a valid functional representation of the sample.”

Science and publishing

Anonymous peer-review comments may spark legal battle – Kelly Servick – Science Insider

“The power of anonymous comments—and the liability of those who make them—is at the heart of a possible legal battle embroiling PubPeer, an online forum launched in October 2012 for anonymous, postpublication peer review.”

Time to Raise the Profile of Women and Minorities in Science – Brian Welle and Megan Smith – Scientific American

“Along these lines, over the past few years, we discovered some pretty ugly news about our beloved Google Doodles. “

Bik’s Picks

Immune system of newborn babies stronger than previously thought – Science Daily

“Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study.”

The Preservation Of Lonesome George – Sarah Fecht – PopSci.com

“Decades after the last giant tortoise was thought to have disappeared from the island of Pinta in the Galapagos, Lonesome George turned up in 1971 and became a conservation icon.”

 Great white sharks partly to blame for otter recovery stall – Peter Fimrite – SF Gate

“Most scientists agree that the number of animals, which are also known as southern sea otters, should be increasing, but hungry predators and a lack of food may be limiting their growth.”

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Microbiome digest, September 19, 2014

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An update from the Cochrane Review Journal on probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis, oral microbiome in apical periodontitis or polycystic ovary syndrome, vaginal and gut microbiome, and bacteria in shrimp, soil, and water.
Pregnancy and birth

Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants – Khalid AlFaleh, and Jasim Anabrees – Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal

“For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 10), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2013).”

Anne Geddes Unveils New Image Of A Baby Born Too Soon – March of Dimes

“Mrs. Geddes donated the image of Alfred, who was born 8 weeks too soon, weighing just two pounds, six ounces, to the March of Dimes, which made the photo the center of its 2014 World Prematurity Day campaign.”

Human oral microbiome

Highly Diverse Microbiota in Dental Root Canals in Cases of Apical Periodontitis (Data of Illumina Sequencing) – Veiko Vengerfeldt – Journal of Endodontics

“Samples were collected under strict aseptic conditions from 12 teeth … and characterized by profiling the microbial community on the basis of the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene by using Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing combinatorial sequence-tagged polymerase chain reaction products.”

Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oral Microbiota and Systemic Antibody Responses – Aliye Akcalı – PLOS ONE

“Salivary levels of seven putative periodontal pathogens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA. “

Human genital microbiome

The Changing Landscape of the Vaginal Microbiome – Bernice Huang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“The vaginal microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem in which the microbiota play a major role in regulating parameters such as pH and in limiting the growth of potentially harmful organisms”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Diet, gut microbes, and genetics in immune function: can we leverage our current knowledge to achieve better outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases? – Vanessa A Leone – Current Opinion in Immunology

“This review summarizes our current understanding of dietary-induced changes in gut microbiota on autoimmunity in the context of IBD.”

The evolving role of the gut microbiome in human disease – Lloyd H. Kasper – FEBS Letters

“We are delighted to introduce this Special Issue, which summarizes the current understanding of the complex relationship between the gut microbiome and the host.”

Virulence genes are a signature of the microbiome in the colorectal tumor microenvironment – Michael B Burns – bioRxiv Preprints

“We characterized the microbiome in 44 primary tumor and 44 patient-matched normal colon tissues. We find that tumors harbor distinct microbial communities compared to nearby healthy tissue.”

Gut Microbiota: A Natural Adjuvant for Vaccination – Oliver Pabst, Mathias Hornef – Immunity

“In this issue of Immunity, Oh et al. (2014) reveal an unappreciated facet of how the microbiota influences immune responses. Immunity to nonadjuvanted vaccines depends on Toll-like-receptor-5-mediated sensing of the microbiota.”

Animal and bioreactor models

TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination – Jason Z. Oh – Immunity

“Vaccination of Trl5−/− mice resulted in reduced antibody titers and lower frequencies of plasma cells, demonstrating a role for TLR5 in immunity to TIV. This was due to a failure to sense host microbiota. “

In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch – Melliana Jonathan – Food Chemistry

“This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. “

Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 – Edna P. Nyangale – Anaerobe

“Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo.”

Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function – Benjamin D Shogan – Microbiome journal

“Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery … and the 6th day following surgery …, we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats.”

General human microbiome

Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection – January T. Salas, Theresa L. Chang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have altered microbiome associated with immune activation that impacts the consquence of disease progression”

Shrimp microbiome

Characterization of the intestinal microbiota in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed diets with different lipid sources – Meiling Zhang – Aquaculture

“an Illumina-based sequencing method was used to examine the intestinal bacterial composition of L. vannamei following six diets with different lipid sources.”

Soil microbiome

Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil –
S. Lladó – Journal of Hazardous Materials

“Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided”

Water microbiome

High-throughput sequencing reveals neustonic and planktonic microbial eukaryote diversity in coastal waters – Joe D. Taylor and Michael Cunliffe – Journal of Phycology

“Here, we use high-throughput 18S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize protist and fungal diversity in the SML at a coastal time-series station and compare with underlying plankton assemblages. “

Microbes in the news

Sex in the Sink: Gene-Swapping Bacteria Are Making New Superbugs – Maggie Fox – NBC News

“Over the past decade, there has been a steady and alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a trend that poses a serious threat to the U.S. medical system,” Segre and colleagues wrote in their report.

Science, publishing, and career

To Get More Out of Science, Show the Rejected Research – Brendan Nyhan – New York Times

“In a new white paper, I propose that the American Political Science Association offer options for articles in a Registered Reports-style format. “

Pushing Women and People of Color Out of Science Before We Go In – Jennifer Selvidge – Huffington Post

“The misogyny and racism I experienced and saw at MIT became more and more concerning, between professors making “get back in the kitchen jokes” and hearing about what seemed to be legions of male PhD student sexually harassing woman undergraduates.”

Bik’s Picks

I want one! These adorable giant African rats detect land mines and TB for a living – Bec Crew – Scientific American

“So yesterday, I adopted an unborn land-mine-detecting African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) from Tanzania. “

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new ‘sleep node’ in the brain – Science Daily

“A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. “

Experts: Science Class Can Dazzle With Less Danger – Dan Elliott – ABC News

“On Sept. 3, 13 people, mostly children, were burned by a methanol-fueled flash fire during a science demonstration at the Terry Lee Wells Nevada Discovery Museum in Reno.”

(Satire) Bono Showcases New Genome Sequencers, The i-LUMINA 6 and i-LUMINA 6 plus – the Allium

“Lead singer with the rock band U2, Bono, revealed the latest in genome sequencing technology at a gala event in the Moscone Center in San Francisco, yesterday.”

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Human microbiome digest, September 15, 2014

MicrobiomeDigest is back! Lots of new papers came out in my 2-week hiatus, so here we go (more tomorrow):

General (Human) Microbiota

Editorial for Special Issue: Insights into Molecular Mechanisms of Microbiota – Eric C. Martens, Justin L. Sonnenburg, David A. Relman – Journal of Molecular Biology

“Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes has been a goal for decades, but while recent technological advances have greatly expanded our descriptive view of these ecosystems, our knowledge of underlying functions and mechanisms has lagged. “

A Systematic Analysis of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Human Microbiome Reveals a Common Family of Antibiotics – Mohamed S. Donia – Cell

“we identified 3,118 small-molecule biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in genomes of human-associated bacteria and studied their representation in 752 metagenomic samples from the NIH Human Microbiome Project.”

See also:

Mining for Antibiotics, Right Under Our Noses – Carl Zimmer – New York Times

The Integrative Human Microbiome Project: Dynamic Analysis of Microbiome-Host Omics Profiles during Periods of Human Health and Disease – iHMP Consortium – Cell Host & Microbe

“Here we describe the three models of microbiome-associated human conditions, on the dynamics of preterm birth, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 2 diabetes”

Microbiome in pregnancy and birth
Review: Diet and host–microbial crosstalk in postnatal intestinal immune homeostasis – Nitya Jain & W. Allan Walker – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

“In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding early-life nutrition, its effects on the microbiota and the consequences of diet-induced perturbation of the structure of the microbial community on mucosal immunity and disease susceptibility.”

The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology – Jan Stener Joergensen – Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

“a focused systematic review/meta-analysis, which targeted the use of clindamycin before 22 weeks gestation, in women with objective evidence of abnormal genital tract flora, demonstrated that clindamycin produced a significant decrease in late miscarriage and preterm birth.”

Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Diversity in Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Rachel Brower-Sinning – PLOS ONE

26 intestinal samples were resected from 19 infants, including 16 NEC samples and 10 non-NEC samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced. “

Oral human microbiome

The presence of cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity of one-year-old
infants delivered pre-term with very low birthweights: a case control study – Vlasta Merglova – BMC Oral Health

“At 12 months of age, both groups of infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples from the dorsum of the tongue and dental plaque samples were collected.”

Frequent detection of Streptococcus tigurinus in the human oral microbial flora by a specific 16S rRNA gene real-time TaqMan PCR – Andrea Zbinden – BMC Microbiology

“Although S. tigurinus was a frequently detected species of the human oral microbial flora, it was not associated with periodontal disease. “

Oral Microbiome Link to Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma – Konstantin Astafurov – PLOS ONE

“Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria”

Bacterial community composition of chronic periodontitis and novel oral sampling sites for detecting disease indicators  – Vaia Galimanas – Microbiome

“Using SubG, SupG, and tongue plaque DNA from 11 healthy and 13 diseased subjects, we sequenced V3 regions (approximately 200 bases) of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina sequencing.”

Human gut microbiome

TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination – Jason Z. Oh – Immunity

“TLR5-mediated sensing of the microbiota also impacted antibody responses to the inactivated polio vaccine, but not to adjuvanted vaccines or the live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine.”

Review: Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial
perspective – Guus A.M. Kortman – FEMS Microbiology Reviews

“This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health.”

Review: Host–microbe interactions shaping the gastrointestinal environment – Gerard E. Kaiko, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck – Trends in Immunology

“Here we review emerging concepts of how microbial metabolic processes control commensal composition, invading pathogens, immune activation, and intestinal barrier function. “

The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota – Pauline D. Scanlan – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Here, we survey the prevalence, genetic diversity and temporal stability of Blastocystis in a group of healthy adults (n = 105) using a sensitive PCR assay.”

Evaluation of bifidobacterial community composition in the human gut by means of a targeted amplicon sequencing (ITS) protocol – Christian Milani – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Here, we define the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of all currently known Bifidobacterium taxa, providing a Bifidobacterium-specific primer pair that targets a hypervariable region within the ITS suitable for precise taxonomic identification of all 48 so far recognized members of the Bifidobacterium genus.”

Alzheimer’s disease and the microbiome – James M. Hill – Alzheimer’s & Dementia

“In these preliminary studies we evaluated the effects of the anti-amyloid, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory flavonoid quercetin on growth inhibition of the HM-representative Bacteroides galacturonicus (ATCC 43244).”

Complete Suppression of the Gut Microbiome Prevents Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  – Jaak M. Vossen – PLOS ONE

“All patients received T-cell replete marrow from human leukocyte antigens (HLA) matched sibling donors under identical transplantation conditions.”

Associations of the Fecal Microbiome With Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women – Barbara J. Fuhrman – Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

“Our data suggest that women with a more diverse gut microbiome exhibit an elevated urinary ratio of hydroxylated estrogen metabolites to parent estrogen. “

Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis – Nan Qin – Nature

“Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. “

Altered intestinal microbiota and blood T cell phenotype are shared by patients with Crohn’s disease and their unaffected siblings – Charlotte R Hedin – Gut

“Faecal microbiology was analysed by quantitative PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA, FC by ELISA, blood T cell phenotype by flow cytometry and IP by differential lactulose-rhamnose absorption in 22 patients with inactive CD, 21 of their healthy siblings and 25 controls.”

Detection of bacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Crohn’s disease patients using high throughput sequencing – Claire L O’Brien – Gut

“Universal primers targeting V1–V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to amplify bacterial DNA and amplicons sequenced using high throughput sequencing. “

Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria – Elizabeth A. Rettedal – Nature Communications

“Here, we show that carefully designed conditions enable cultivation of a representative proportion of human gut bacteria, enabling rapid multiplex phenotypic profiling. “

Animal models of human microbiome research

Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation – Yoshiyuki Goto – Science

“Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. “

Effect of Metformin on Metabolic Improvement and Gut Microbiota – Heetae Lee and GwangPyo Ko – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota was investigated using a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity with and without metformin treatment. “

Microbiota modulate transcription in the intestinal epithelium without remodeling the accessible chromatin landscape – J. Gray Camp – Genome Research

“We profiled transcriptome and accessible chromatin landscapes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from mice reared in the presence or absence of microbiota.”

Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota – Husen Zhang – ISME Journal

“Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1−/− mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment.”

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Human microbiome digest, August 25, 2014

Oral microbiome in the settings of periodontitis, smoking and antibiotic resistance, respiratory microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis, a decade of molecular papers on vaginal microbiome, and gut bacteria protecting against food allergies.

Oral microbiome

* Microbial Signature Profiles of Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analyzed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM. “

Smoking decreases structural and functional resilience in the subgingival ecosystem – Vinayak Joshi – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“16S cloning and sequencing was used for bacterial identification and multiplexed bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators.”

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae – Arne Søraas – Journal of Oral Microbiology

“No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. “

Clonality of bacterial consortia in root canals and subjacent gingival crevices – Nipuna B. Parahitiyawa – Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry

“The four niches studied yielded 186 clones representing 54 phylotypes. Clone library comparisons using LIBSHUFF software indicated that each niche was inhabited by a unique flora. “

Respiratory microbiome

* Antimicrobial resistance in the respiratory microbiota of people with cystic fibrosis
Laura J Sherrard – The Lancet

“Strategies to manage antimicrobial resistance consist of new antibiotics or localised delivery of antimicrobial agents, iron sequestration, inhibition of quorum-sensing, and resistome analysis.”

Evidence that Intraspecific Trait Variation among Nasal Bacteria Shapes the Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus – Ben Libberton – Infection and Immunity

“We characterized S. aureus growth inhibition by the culturable bacterial aerobe consortia of 60 nasal microbiomes, and this revealed intraspecific variation in growth inhibition and that inhibitory isolates clustered within communities that were culture negative for S. aureus. “

Gary Huffnagle: rewriting the rules on the lung microbiome – David Holmes – The Lancet

“The ideas being generated by Huffnagle at the moment are all about the lung microbiome and its role in the pathogenesis of everything from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to asthma, and they’re starting to make waves.”

Vaginal microbiome

* The Vaginal Microbiota: What Have We Learned after a Decade of Molecular Characterization? – Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert – PLOS ONE

“We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database … to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions.”

Gut microbiome

Modelling the Emergent Dynamics and Major Metabolites of the Human Colonic Microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“We present here a first attempt at modelling microbial dynamics in the human colon incorporating both uncertainty and adaptation. “

Animal models of human microbiome

Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization – Andrew T. Stefka – PNAS USA

“By selectively colonizing gnotobiotic mice, we demonstrate that the allergy-protective capacity is conferred by a Clostridia-containing microbiota. “

Pregnancy and Birth

Researcher Granted $1 Million to Study Deadly Bacteria Passed to Babies From 25 Percent of Mothers – Infection Control Today

“Narayana Sthanam, PhD, professor of structural biology in the Department of Optometry, has been awarded a four-year, $1 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to further Group B Streptococcus research.”

Microbiome News

* Satire: Study Reveals Microbiome To Be Master-Controller Of All Humanity – The Allium

“Science has already found out that your microbiome at birth decides your taste in clothes and music, whether you are going to be great footballer like David Beckham or a great political leader like Sarah Palin.”

9 questions you were too grossed out to ask about the bacteria living on you – Susannah Locke – Vox

“What researchers have discovered is that our bodies are essentially complex ecosystems of tiny living things. “

Interview with Prof. Yolanda Sanz, project coordinator of My New Gut – Kristina Campbell – Gut Microbiota For Health

“Professor Yolanda Sanz has been appointed MyNewGut’s project coordinator and leads the project’s human intervention trials on the gut microbiome’s ability to metaolise (sic) nutrients and influence energy balance. “

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Human microbiome digest, August 19, 2014

Lots of oral and gut microbiome papers today – Alzheimer’s, probiotics, chemotherapy and radiation.

Oral microbiome

Review: The Microbiome and Disease: Reviewing the Links between the Oral Microbiome, Aging, and Alzheimer’s Disease – Deborah K. Shoemark – Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

“Evidence linking oral bacteria to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is discussed in the context of aging, drawing together data from epidemiological, experimental, genetic, and environmental studies. “

* Human oral viruses are personal, persistent and gender-consistent – Shira R Abeles – ISME Journal

“To improve our understanding of the DNA viruses that inhabit the human oral cavity, we examined saliva from a cohort of eight unrelated subjects over a 60-day period. “

* Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota – Shi Huang – ISME Journal

“In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched.”

Phylogenetic and functional gene structure shifts of the oral microbiomes in periodontitis patients – Yan Li – ISME Journal

“Here, we examined the phylogenetic and functional gene differences between periodontal and healthy individuals using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a specific functional gene array”

Perspective: Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench – Patricia I. Diaz – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression.”

Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults – Mercedes Fernandez y Mostajo – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.”

* Review: Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome
Jeffrey S. McLean – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them.”

Gut microbiome

* Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes – Meiling Zhang – PNAS USA

“Here we demonstrate that two human gut commensal Bacteroides are equipped with unique enzymes that allow degradation of xylan, a common hemicellulose in human diets.”

Evaluation of bifidobacterial community composition in the human gut by means of a targeted amplicon sequencing (ITS) protocol – Christian Milani – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Here, we define the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of all currently known Bifidobacterium taxa, providing a Bifidobacterium-specific primer pair that targets a hyper-variable region within the ITS suitable for precise taxonomic identification of all 48 so far recognized members of the Bifidobacterium genus.”

* Multi-omics analysis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – Hu Huang – Immunology Letters

“There is strong evidence of interactions between host genotype, environment, and gut microbiome profile in IBD.”

The methylome of the gut microbiome: disparate Dam methylation patterns in intestinal Bacteroides dorei – Michael T. Leonard – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Here metagenomic sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences platform allowed for rapid identification of bacterial GATC methylation status of a bacterial species in human stool samples. “

Perspective: Imposition of encapsulated non-indigenous probiotics into intestine may disturb human core microbiome – Abolfazl Barzegari – Frontiers in Microbiology

“..we envision that multi-probiotic therapy and holistic personalized microbiome supplements may be scientifically justified and valued in individualized probiotic designs and even targeted therapy of life-threatening diseases such as cancers in the future. “

Editorial: gut microbiota and chemotherapy- or radiation-induced gastrointestinal mucositis – M. R. Ferreira and H. J. N. Andreyev – Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

“Studies in those undergoing cancer therapy will lead to a new era in the treatment and prevention of the currently dreadful GI toxicity suffered by so many patients, and what we learn will almost certainly bring important insights to many other GI disorders.”

Respiratory microbiome

Cell-associated bacteria in the human lung microbiome – Robert P Dickson – Microbiome

“We present a novel methodological and analytical approach to the localization of lung microbiota and show that the prominent members of the lung microbiome are cell-associated, potentially via biofilms, cell adhesion, or intracellularity.”

Vaginal microbiome

A Systems Biology Approach Investigating the Effect of Probiotics on the Vaginal Microbiome and Host Responses in a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Post-Menopausal Women – Jordan E. Bisanz – PLOS ONE

“Analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics profiling revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was increased following probiotic administration as compared to placebo, which was weakly associated with an increase in lactate levels. “

Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women – Hanneke Borgdorff – ISME Journal

“In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. “

* also tweeted by @MicrobiomDigest (yup, that’s me).

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Human microbiome digest, July 21

Today we have articles on two microbiome pioneers: Rob Knight and Jeffrey Gordon, as well as papers on periodontitis, eczema, Crohn’s disease, and Helicobacter.

General microbiome

The effects of the microbiota on the host immune system – Jacek Karczewski – Autoimmunity

“This review is focused on host–microbiota interactions, specifically on influence of bacterial-derived signals on immune cell function and the mechanisms by which these signals modulate the development and progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.”

Imposition of encapsulated non-indigenous probiotics into intestine may disturbs human core microbiome – Abolfazl Barzegari – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We envision that the lack of survivability of some of the probiotic candidates within such hostile milieu of GIT may negatively affect the coevolving process of bacteria in human host and hence impact the endpoint health promotion goals.”

40 under 40: Rob Knight – Cell

“Some dead scientists who I would have loved to have had the opportunity to work with include Carl Woese, Richard Feynman, Francis Crick, Erwin Chargaff, Sewall Wright, Benjamin Franklin, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Boyle, Eratosthenes, and Lucretius. These lists are intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive; according to my NSF Conflict of Interest form I have written grants or papers with about 750 people, all of whom I admire.”

Jeffrey I. Gordon, M.D., Will Receive Pitt’s Dickson Prize at Science 2014—Sustain It! – University of Pittsburgh

“A scientist who has explored how the tens of trillions of microbes that live in the gastrointestinal tract and their genes influence human physiology, metabolism and nutritional status will receive the University of Pittsburgh’s 2014 Dickson Prize in Medicine.”

Oral microbiome

Quantitative analysis of classical and new putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm: a case–control study – N. N. Al-hebshi – Journal of Periodontal Research

“Pooled subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Taqman q-PCR assays were used to determine the absolute and relative counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, oral Synergistetes and oral TM7s. “

Skin microbiome

Review: Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema – Giuseppe Baviera – BioMed Research International

“This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin.”

Gastric microbiome

Microbial Profile of the Stomach: Comparison between Normal Mucosa and Cancer Tissue in the Same Patient – Incheol Seo – Journal of Bacteriology and Virology

“In this study, we identified differences in the microbial communities between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa by comparing the microbiomes of tissues from the same patients. The clustering analysis results showed different bacterial communities between normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer.”

Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori – Eitaro Aihara – PLOS Pathogens

“Using anesthetized mice in which we have induced microscopic damage to the stomach surface, we find that H. pylori is able to rapidly detect and navigate towards this damage site. Within minutes, bacterial accumulation slows repair of the damage.”

Gut microbiome

Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome
Yue-Dong Gao – BioMed Research International

“we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. “

Analysis of Gut Microbiome and Diet Modification in Patients with Crohn’s Disease [PDF] – Sumathi Sankaran Walters – Symbiosis

“Fecal samples were obtained from patients with Crohn’s disease in a pilot diet crossover trial comparing the effects of a specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) versus a low residue diet (LRD) on the composition and complexity of the gut microbiota and resolution of IBD symptoms. The gut microbiota composition was assessed using a high-density DNA microarray PhyloChip “

Review: Managing the manager: Gut microbes, stem cells and metabolism
M. Serino – Diabetes & Metabolism

“The LPS-sensitive cell types can be seen within bone marrow-derived cells (BMC), which are involved in the development of inflammation in the adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic mice. “

 

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