August 18, 2018

The virome of California mosquitoes, effects of climate warming on grassland microbial communities, and a few “bacteria and art” entries including a 92-foot inflatable E. coli sculpture.

General microbiome

Communities of Niche-Optimized Strains: Small-Genome Organism Consortia in Bioproduction – Stephan Noack – Trends in Biotechnology

Growth tradeoffs produce complex microbial communities on a single limiting resource – Michael Manhart – Nature Communications

Human oral microbiome

Oral microbiome development during childhood: an ecological succession influenced by postnatal factors and associated with tooth decay – Majda Dzidic – The ISME Journal

Animal experiments

Loss of HDAC6 alters gut microbiota and worsens obesity – Arnon D Lieber – The FASEB Journal

Animal microbiome

Pre-print: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene deletion of the ompA gene in an Enterobacter gut symbiont impairs biofilm formation and reduces gut colonization of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes – Shivanand Hegde – bioRxiv

Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Climate warming leads to divergent succession of grassland microbial communities – Xue Guo – Nature Climate Change

Water and extremophile microbiome

Bacterial Diversity in Replicated Hydrogen Sulfide-Rich Streams – Scott Hotaling – Microbial Ecology

Long-term in situ permafrost thaw effects on bacterial communities and potential aerobic respiration – Sylvain Monteux – The ISME Journal

Phages and viruses

Virome of > 12 thousand Culex mosquitoes from throughout California – Mohammadreza Sadeghi – Virology

Comprehensive comparative analysis of methods and software for identifying viral integrations – Xun Chen – Briefings in Bioinformatics

Phage-inducible chromosomal islands are ubiquitous within the bacterial universe – Alfred Fillol-Salom – The ISME Journal

Metabolomics

Metabotypes Related to Meat and Vegetable Intake Reflect Microbial, Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism in Healthy People – Runmin Wei – Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

More microbes

Comparative Genomics of Nitrogen Cycling Pathways in Bacteria and Archaea – Michaeline B N Albright – Microbial Ecology

Bacteria art

Linen and Bacteria: The Hidden History of Microbiology – Clara Rodríguez Fernández – Labiotech.eu

Pomona Arts: Sara Parent Ramos: Jumble, Bunch, Grow – Inland Empire

Oxford Natural History exhibition explores benefits of bacteria – BBC News

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August 13, 2018

Today’s Digest is full of amazing research from focusing on causation in microbiome studies to increased efficacy of BLAST searches in the age of high throughput sequencing.

General Microbiome

Microbiome: Focus on Causation and Mechanism.Fischbach MA. Cell.

Effect of Antibiotic-Mediated Microbiome Modulation on Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity: A Human, Randomized-Control Proof-of-Concept Trial.Harris VC. Cell Host and Microbe

Enhancing Rotavirus Vaccination: A Microbial Fix? Parker EPK. Cell Host and Microbe

Snapshot of an early Paleoproterozoic ecosystem: Two diverse microfossil communities from the Turee Creek Group, Western Australia. Barlow EV. Geobiology.

Background levels of microorganisms in the busy urban environment of transport hubs.Patel KV. Journal of Applied Microbiology.

Immunomodulation as Therapy for Fungal Infection: Are We Closer?Sam QH. Frontiers in Microbiology

Profiling of Bacterial and Fungal Microbial Communities in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Using RNA.Grahl N. mSphere.

Oral Microbiome

Comparison of oral microbiota in orthodontic patients and healthy individuals.Sun F. Microbial Pathogenesis

Skin Microbiome

Mud therapy and skin microbiome: a review.Antonelli M. International Journal of Biometeorology

Gut Microbiome

Phylogeny-corrected identification of microbial gene families relevant to human gut colonization.Bradley PH. PLoS Computational Biology

Dynamic changes in human-gut microbiome in relation to a placebo-controlled anthelminthic trial in Indonesia.Martin I. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease.

Faecal Microbiome

Effects of metal and metalloid pollutants on the microbiota composition of feces obtained from twelve commercial pig farms across China.Peng Z. Science Total Environment

Fecal Microbiota Alterations Associated With Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.Zhuang X. Frontiers in Microbiology.

Plant, Soils, and Air Microbiome

Environmental variables better explain changes in potential nitrification and denitrification activities than microbial properties in fertilized forest soils.Tang Y. Science of Total Environment

Metagenomic analysis of rhizosphere microflora of oil-contaminated soil planted with barley and alfalfa. Kumar V. PLoS One.

Trichoderma polysporum selectively inhibits white-nose syndrome fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans amidst soil microbes.Singh A. Microbiome.

Tissue Microbiome of Norway Spruce Affected by Heterobasidion-Induced Wood Decay.Ren F. Microbial Ecology

Evidence for complete nitrification in enrichment culture of tidal sediments and diversity analysis of clade a comammox Nitrospira in natural environments. Yu C. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Traits-Based Integration of Multi-Species Inoculants Facilitates Shifts of Indigenous Soil Bacterial Community.Wang J. Frontier in Microbiology

Spatial Patterns and Drivers of Microbial Taxa in a Karst Broadleaf Forest.Song M. Frontiers in Microbiology

Water Microbiome

Response of Microbial Communities to Changing Climate Conditions During Summer Cyanobacterial Blooms in the Baltic Sea.Berner C. Frontiers in Microbiology

Coral Microbiome Database: Integration of sequences reveals high diversity and relatedness of coral-associated microbes.Huggett MJ. Environmental Microbiology Reports

Animal Experiments and Microbiome

Diet and other environmental factors shape the bacterial communities of fish gut in an eutrophic lake. Kashinskaya EN. Journal of Applied Microbiology

Yeast-like microorganisms in the scale insect Kermes quercus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Kermesidae). Newly acquired symbionts?Podsiadło E. Arthropod Structure and Development

Initial description of the core ocular surface microbiome in dogs: Bacterial community diversity and composition in a defined canine population.Leis ML. Veterinary Ophthalmology

High-Throughput Analysis Reveals Seasonal Variation of the Gut Microbiota Composition Within Forest Musk Deer (<i>Moschus berezovskii</i>).Hu X. Frontiers in Microbiology

A Comprehensive Research on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Microbiota of Aquatic Animals.Hong B. Frontiers in Microbiology

Identification of spider-mite species and their endosymbionts using multiplex PCR.Zélé F. Experimental and Applied Acarology

Soil microarthropods alter the outcome of plant-soil feedback experiments.Kuťáková E. Scientific Reports

Techniques/Bioinformatics 

Metagenome complexity and template length are the main causes of bias in PCR-based bacteria community analysis.Peng W. Journal of Basic Microbiology

Single-cell RNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatics pipelines.Hwang B. Experimental and Molecular Medicine

Negative Binomial Mixed Models for Analyzing Longitudinal Microbiome Data.Zhang X. Frontiers in Microbiology

Stationary and portable sequencing-based approaches for tracing wastewater contamination in urban stormwater systems. Hu Y. Scientific Reports

CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.Tristão Ramos RJ. Bioinformatics

August 10, 2018

This Friday enjoy reading about the global topsoil microbiome, human pharyngeal microbiota profiles and microbial biomarkers associated with chronic kidney disease. There’s an interesting podcast [Mapping microbes on the metro]! Happy weekend!

Human gut microbiome

Neonatal selection by Toll-like receptor 5 influences long-term gut microbiota composition – Marcus Fulde – Nature

*Altered gut microbiota and microbial biomarkers associated with chronic kidney disease – Hengzhong Lun – Microbiologyopen.

Review: Rebuilding the Gut Microbiota Ecosystem – Antonella Gagliardi – Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health

Human respiratory microbiome

*Human pharyngeal microbiota in age-related macular degeneration – Eliza Xin Pei Ho – PLoS One

Plant, root and soil microbiome

*Structure and function of the global topsoil microbiome – Mohammad Bahra – Nature

Mini review: Root colonization: imperative mechanism for efficient plant protection and growth – Swati Sachdev and Rana Pratap Singh – MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences

Review: From Microscopy to Genomic Approach in Soil Biodiversity Assessment – Lucia Popescu and Zhi-Ping Cao – Curr. Issues Mol. Biol.

Review: You Are What You Can Find to Eat: Bacterial Metabolism in the Rhizosphere – Nicola Holden – Curr. Issues Mol. Biol.

Podcast

*Gut bacteria vs the immune system; Mapping microbes on the metro – Adam Levy and Benjamin Thompson – Nature Podcast

Microbes in the news

Checkpoint for gut microbes after birth – Andrew J. Macpherson and Stephanie C. Ganal-Vonarburg – Nature News and Views

August 9, 2018

Horizontal gene transfer in microbiomes, metabolic study of the microbiota isolated from the camel rumen, a review on the bacteriophage virome in IBD.

General microbiome

Review: Monitoring plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer in microbiomes: recent advances and future perspectives – Rafael Pinilla-Redondo – Plasmid

Review: Learning from bacterial competition in the host to develop antimicrobials – Manuela Raffatellu – Nature Medicine

Pregnancy and early life

Early life colonization of the human gut: microbes matter everywhere – Katri Korpela – Current Opinion in Microbiology

Human respiratory microbiome

Determinants of the Nasal Microbiome: Pilot Study of Effects of Intranasal Medication Use – Vijay R Ramakrishnan – Allergy & Rhinology

Human skin microbiome

Sensitive scalp is associated with excessive sebum and perturbed microbiome – Li Ma – Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Animal experiments

Effects of host genetics and environmental conditions on fecal microbiota composition of pigs – Tereza Kubasova – PLOS ONE

Animal microbiome

A metagenomic analysis of the camel rumen’s microbiome identifies the major microbes responsible for lignocellulose degradation and fermentation – Javad Gharechahi – Biotechnology for Biofuels

Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Nitrogen fixation in a landrace of maize is supported by a mucilage-associated diazotrophic microbiota – Allen Van Deynze – PLOS Biology

Brazilian Ironstone Plant Communities as Reservoirs of Culturable Bacteria With Diverse Biotechnological Potential – Washington L Caneschi – Frontiers in Microbiology

Water and extremophile microbiome

Coupling biogeochemical process rates and metagenomic blueprints of coastal bacterial assemblages in the context of environmental change – Trine Markussen – Environmental Microbiology

Pre-print: Resource diversity structures aquatic bacterial communities – Mario E Muscarella – bioRxiv

Pre-print: Modular assembly of polysaccharide-degrading microbial communities in the ocean – Tim N Enke – bioRxiv

Food microbiology

Review: Bakery yeasts, a new model for studies in ecology and evolution – Belen Carbonetto – Yeast

Inferences from inventories of microbes in ecological vineyard settings – Hans-Josef Schroers – International Journal of Environmental Quality

Phages and viruses

Review: Bacteriophage virome in IBD – Clemens Thoma – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Bioinformatics

Synthetic microbe communities provide internal reference standards for metagenome sequencing and analysis – Simon A Hardwick – Nature Communications

August 6, 2018

In today’s digest, look for probiotic trials for renal insufficiency and metabolic syndrome, experimental dysbiosis in SIV-infected primates, bacterial and fungal network analyses in soils, and recombination in the human virome. Plus, bacteria in the popular press, hints for scientists using Twitter, the first stem cell therapies for Parkinson’s Disease, and more!

Human gut microbiome
Antigenic mimicry of ubiquitin by the gut bacterium Bacteroides fragilis: a potential link with autoimmune disease – Linda Stewart – Clinical and Experimental Immunology

Animal experiments
Experimental microbial dysbiosis does not promote disease progression in SIV-infected macaques – Alexandra M. Ortiz – Nature Medicine

Addition of dairy lipids and probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum in infant formula programs gut microbiota and entero-insular axis in adult minipigs – Marion Lemaire – Scientific Reports

Animal microbiome
Increased Numbers of Culturable Inhibitory Bacterial Taxa May Mitigate the Effects of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Australian Wet Tropics Frogs – Sara C. Bell – Frontiers in Microbiology

Characterization of the fecal microbiota of healthy horses – Holly L. Stewart – American Journal of Veterinary Research

Plant, root, and soil microbiome
Microbes follow Humboldt: temperature drives plant and soil microbial diversity patterns from the Amazon to the Andes – Andrew T. Nottingham – Ecology

Soil bacterial networks are less stable under drought than fungal networks – Franciska T. de Vries – Nature Communications

Contrasting distribution patterns between aquatic and terrestrial Phytophthora species along a climatic gradient are linked to functional traits – Miguel A. Redondo – The ISME Journal

Variations in microbial community and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dissipation in different rhizospheric compartments between low- and high-DEHP accumulating cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) – Xue-Xue Chen – Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Water and extremophile microbiome
Evaluation of performance and microbial community successional patterns in an integrated OCO reactor under ZnO nanoparticle stress – Zhenghui Liu – RSC Advances

Screening of quorum quenching activity of the bacteria isolated from dairy industry waste activated sludge – J. Kaur – International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

Food Microbiology
Identification of Mesophilic Spore-formers in Whey Powder using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing – Aoife J. McHugh – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Probiotics/Prebiotics
An open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effectiveness of a novel probiotics administration protocol (ProbiotiCKD) in patients with mild renal insufficiency (stage 3a of CKD) – Mariadelina Simeoni – European Journal of Nutrition

Probiotic and synbiotic supplementation could improve metabolic syndrome in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial – Nazila Kassaian – Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews

Phages and viruses
Investigation of recombination-intense viral groups and their genes in the Earth’s virome – Jan P. Meier-Kolthoff – Scientific Reports

Microbes in the news
Hong Kong Subway Study Shows How Quickly Bacteria Travel Across a City – Gizmodo

Bacteria hysteria
Please Don’t Give Up Your Pet Over The Fear Of Dog-Lick Bacteria – Huffington Post

Science, publishing, and career
Scientists on Twitter: Preaching to the choir or singing from the rooftops? – Isabelle Côté – Facets

Alyson’s non-microbiology picks
‘Reprogrammed’ stem cells to be tested in people with Parkinson’s

These tiny, stretchy speakers and microphones let your skin play music

August 5, 2018

Have a good sunday! Today, in Microbiome Digest: several reviews focused in clinical aspects of the microbiome, associations between malnutrition and dysbiosis, a study observing the effect of prebiotics on autism spectrum disorders, influence of the microbiome on mouse brain, the impact of storage and DNA extraction on microbiota analysis, and much more!

 

Human and General Microbiome

Review: The Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with the Mucus Barrier in Health and Disease in Human – Anthony P. Corfield – Microorganisms

Review: Next generation microbiology and cystic fibrosis diagnostics: are we there yet? – Claus Moser – Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

Review: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Risks and Rewards and Emerging Consequences to the Gut Microbiome –  Amandeep Singh – Nutrition in Clinical Practice

Review: The Gut Microbiome in Patients with Intestinal Failure: Current Evidence and Implications for Clinical Practice – Esther Neelis – Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Review: The Esophageal Microbiome in Health and Disease – Brooke Corning – Current Gastroenterology Reports

Review: Microbiota issue in CKD: how promising are gut-targeted approaches? – Carmela Cosola – Journal of Nephrology

Review: Neuroimmunophysiology of the gut: advances and emerging concepts focusing on the epithelium – Keith A. Sharkey – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Commentary: The Perturbance of Microbiome and Gut-Brain Axis in Autism Spectrum Disorders – Greta Fowlie – International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Comment: Causality in dietary interventions-building a case for gut microbiota – Yan Y. Lam – Genome Medicine

Emergent simplicity in microbial community assembly – Joshua E. Goldford – Science

Contraception: Influence on Vaginal Microbiota and Identification of Vaginal Lactobacilli Using MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rDNA Sequencing – Sonia E. Fosch – The Open Microbiology Journal

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis is Associated with Malnutrition and Reduced Plasma Amino Acid Levels: Lessons from Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling – Manish Kumar – Metabolic Engineering

Photobiomodulation of the microbiome: implications for metabolic and inflammatory diseases – Brian Bicknell – Lasers in Medical Science

Roxithromycin regulates intestinal microbiota and alters colonic epithelial gene expression – Cheng Zhang – Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Whole Cell Cross-Linking to Discover Host-Microbe Protein Cognate Receptor/Ligand Pairs – Bart C. Weimer – Frontiers in Microbiology

 

Animal Microbiome

The gut microbiota drives the impact of bile acids and fat source in diet on mouse metabolism – Sarah Just – Microbiome

Changes in feeding habits promoted the differentiation of the composition and function of gut microbiotas between domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) – Tianshu Lyu – AMB Express

The effect of dietary lipid on gut microbiota in a senescence-accelerated prone mouse model (SAMP8) – Kazushi Yamamoto – Biogerontology

Moderate Dietary Protein Restriction Optimized Gut Microbiota and Mucosal Barrier in Growing Pig Model – Xiyue Chen – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Effects of Sub-Chronic MPTP Exposure on Behavioral and Cognitive Performance and the Microbiome of Wild-Type and mGlu8 Knockout Female and Male Mice – Eileen Ruth S. Torres – Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Microbiota influence the development of the brain and behaviors in C57BL/6J mice – Jing Lu – PLoS ONE

Intestinal Microbiota Lipid Metabolism Varies across Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Phylogeographic Divide – Christina C. Yildirimer – Journal of Applied Microbiology

Chronic refined low-fat diet consumption reduces cholecystokinin satiation in rats – Mathilde Guerville – European Journal of Nutrition

The dynamics of the piglet gut microbiome during the weaning transition in association with health and nutrition – Robin B. Guevarra – Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

 

Methodologies

Combined bacterial and fungal intestinal microbiota analyses: Impact of storage conditions and DNA extraction protocols – Cécile Angebault – PLoS ONE

 

Beneficial Microbes and Compounds

A prebiotic intervention study in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) – Roberta Grimaldi – Microbiome

Chemical Compositions of Cold-pressed Broccoli, Carrot and Cucumber Seed Flours, and Their in Vitro Gut Microbiota Modulatory, Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties – Uyory Choe – Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

 

Pathogen Research

Review: Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis – Brian S. Furukawa – Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

Article post

Microbiota depletion shifts colonocyte substrate utilization

In the fed state, glucose is the major fuel to most cell types in the body. In contrast, colonic epithelial cells or colonocytes utilize butyrate as their major energy source. Butyrate is one of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a class of microbial metabolites produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in gut. When the gut microbiota is depleted, such as in germ-free (GF) mice, butyrate levels along with other SCFAs decline prompting “starved” colonocytes to shift their substrate utilization to an alternative fuel, such as glucose.

Glucose undergo oxidative metabolism in cells to produce energy. In contrast, early ex vivo experiments studying substrate utilization in isolated colonocytes of rats using radioactive tracers revealed that about 80% of glucose is rather converted into lactate in colonocytes [1]. Later Donohoe et al., found that colonocytes from GF mice produce approx. 4 times higher lactate compared with conventionally raised mice through anaerobic glycolysis of glucose [2]. However, lactate production is not an energy rewarding process and yields only 2-4 ATP compared with 36 ATPs from oxidative phosphorylation of glucose. Thus, the authors concluded that despite the shift in substrate utilization, the colonocytes in the GF mice remain in energy insufficient state [2].

In the recent article published in Nature Communications by Zarrinpar et al. [3], where gut microbiota (and butyrate!) was depleted using multiple gavage of antibiotics over the course of 4 weeks. The authors found that cecum tissue uses glucose as an alternative fuel in the absence of butyrate, and that the expression levels of 8 out of 10 enzymes in glycolysis pathway were upregulated in cecum of antibiotic- compared with vehicle-treated mice. Finally, they speculate that due to shift in substrate utilization in cecum, gut becomes a glucose sink that could account for overall improvement in glucose metabolism in the antibiotic-treated mice [3].

Perhaps this speculation needs more careful investigation. It is true that colonocytes use butyrate as their primary fuel; however, butyrate is not synthesized in isolation. Gut microbiota produces SCFAs that include acetate, propionate and butyrate. It has been shown that colonocytes prefer other SCFA such as acetate over glucose [4] probably because anaerobic glycolysis of glucose does not yield enough energy. In the article by Zarrinpar et al., there was a trend towards reduction of acetate in antibiotic- compared with vehicle-treated mice, but it was not depleted to the same level as butyrate [3]. Secondly, shift in colonocyte substrate utilization from butyrate to glucose is also observed in inflammatory bowel disease and DSS colitis model. This is indicated to be due to alteration in butyrate uptake and thus colonocytes utilize glucose leading to high amount of lactate accumulation in cells [5]. However, patients with IBS are more prone to develop glucose intolerance than the healthy people.

Studying substrate utilization in cecum/colonocytes is complex. It is true that the isolated colonocytes do not reflect the in vivo scenario. However, transcriptomic data (showing increased expression of glycolytic enzymes in intestinal tissue of antibiotic-treated mice) probably needs to be backed with enzyme activity measurements and tracer studies to  understand its impact on overall metabolism.

1. Ardawi, M.S. and E.A. Newsholme, Fuel utilization in colonocytes of the rat. Biochem J, 1985. 231(3): p. 713-9.

2. Donohoe, D.R., et al., Microbial regulation of glucose metabolism and cell-cycle progression in mammalian colonocytes. PLoS One, 2012. 7(9): p. e46589.

3. Zarrinpar, A., et al., Antibiotic-induced microbiome depletion alters metabolic homeostasis by affecting gut signaling and colonic metabolism. Nat Commun, 2018. 9(1): p. 2872.

4. Clausen, M.R. and P.B. Mortensen, Kinetic studies on the metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and glucose by isolated rat colonocytes. Gastroenterology, 1994. 106(2): p. 423-32.

5. Thibault, R., et al., Butyrate utilization by the colonic mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases: a transport deficiency. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010. 16(4): p. 684-95.