Human microbiome digest, October 14, 2014

Preterm birth and pathogens, oral antibiotic changes skin microbiota, dynamics of tongue microbes, and detection of candidate phyla in the human mouth.

Pregnancy and birth

Microbiological Profile of PROM in a Tertiary Care Centre in Mangalore, Karnataka State
Annie Rajaratnam – International Journal of Health Sciences and Research

“A total of 104 cases of PROM that presented after 37 completed weeks’ of gestation were screened for infections by wet mount, Gram stain & routine culture of high vaginal swabs.“

Epidemiologic Factors and Urogenital Infections Associated With Preterm Birth in a Midwestern U.S. Population – Agger, William A – Obstetrics & Gynecology

“Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens.”

Human Milk Glycomics and Gut Microbial Genomics in Infant Feces Shows Correlation between Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Gut Microbiota: A Proof-of-Concept Study – Maria Lorna Arao De Leoz – Journal of Proteome Research

“Serial fecal specimens from two healthy breast-fed infants were analyzed by bacterial DNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota and by mass spectrometry to determine abundances of specific HMOs that passed through the intestinal tract without being consumed by the luminal bacteria. “

Human skin microbiome

* Oral Antibiotic Treatment Induces Skin Microbiota Dysbiosis and Influences Wound Healing – Meiling Zhang – Microbial Ecology

“our data demonstrate that antibiotic treatment decreases the bacterial density and alters the bacterial composition in skin wounds, followed by a decrease in RegIIIγ expression, which may contribute to the delayed wound repair. “

Human oral microbiome

* Dynamics of tongue microbial communities with single-nucleotide resolution using oligotyping – Jessica L. Mark Welch – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We employed oligotyping to analyze, with single-nucleotide resolution, oral microbial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data from a time course sampled from the tongue of two individuals, and we interpret our results in the context of oligotypes that we previously identified in the oral data from the Human Microbiome Project. “

Host-associated bacterial taxa from Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, GN02, Synergistetes, SR1, TM7, and WPS-2 Phyla/candidate divisions – Anuj Camanocha, Floyd E. Dewhirst – Journal of Oral Microbiology

“The objectives of this study were to create phyla-selective 16S rDNA PCR primer pairs, create selective 16S rDNA clone libraries, identify novel oral taxa, and update canine and human oral microbiome databases.”

Human gut microbiome

Environmental enteropathy and malnutrition: do we know enough to intervene? – William A Petri – BMC Medicine

“Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly defined state of intestinal inflammation without overt diarrhea that occurs in individuals exposed over time to poor sanitation and hygiene.”

* Meta-analyses of human gut microbes associated with obesity and IBD – William A. Walters, Zech Xu, Rob Knight – FEBS Letters

“Here we test for indicator taxa and general features of the microbiota that are generally consistent across studies of obesity and of IBD, focusing on studies involving high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (which we could process using a common computational pipeline). “

Diversity of Microflora in Colonic Mucus from Severe Ulcerative Colitis Patients Analyzed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Clone Libraries of Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences – I-Nung Huang – Advances in Microbiology

“Also in the clone library analysis, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and the Shannon diversity index were reduced significantly in UC patients.”

The Influence of Whole Grain Products and Red Meat on Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Normal Weight Adults: A Randomized Crossover Intervention Trial – Jana Foerster – PLOS ONE

“Repeatedly data on microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).”

Animal and bioreactor models of microbiome research

Assessing non-digestible compounds in apple cultivars and their potential as modulators of obese faecal microbiota in vitro – Luis Condezo-Hoyos – Food Chemistry

“Results showed that relative abundances of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Bifidobacterium in apple cultured faeces tended to resemble the abundance in faeces from lean mice with increased trend in the production of butyric acid. “

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Human microbiome digest, October 7, 2014

Treating toxic arsenic levels with yoghurt, colonization patterns in low birthweight infants, evil alliances in breastmilk, and smoking and oral microbiome.

Human microbiome general

Opinion: Conservation and stewardship of the human microbiome – Kieran C. O’Doherty – PNAS USA

“Just as humans have impacted many large animal species in the environment, drastic changes in human lifestyle over the past century may have altered the global pool of human-associated microbes; if so, these shifts may pose substantial threats to individual and public health.”

Friends with Social Benefits: Host-Microbe Interactions as a Driver of Brain Evolution and Development? – Roman M. Stilling – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“Here in this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development. “

Pregnancy and birth

Intestinal Colonization Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants in First Week of Life (PDF) – Sourabh Dutta – Indian Pediatrics

“Very low birth weight infants admitted in neonatal intensive care units have abnormal intestinal colonization patterns”

Is a fetus developing in a sterile environment? – Trudy M. Wassenaar and Pinaki Panigrahi – Letters in Applied Microbiology

Probiotics and Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Josef Neu – Clinics in Perinatology (paywalled even at Stanford)

Potential involvement of Campylobacter curvus and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in preterm birth – George Louis Mendz – BMJ Case Reports

“A woman presented with prelabour premature preterm rupture of membranes and delivered extremely preterm at 26 weeks by caesarean section.”

Network analysis reveals a potentially ‘evil’ alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities – Zhanshan Ma – arXiv

“..we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network with the data from Hunt et al (2011), which is the largest 16S-rRNA sequence data set of human milk microbiome available to date.”

Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children – Jordan E. Bisanz – mBio

“Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children.”

Human oral microbiome

* Alcohol and tobacco consumption affects bacterial richness in oral cavity mucosa biofilms – Andrew Maltez Thomas – BMC Microbiology

“DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. “

* Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients – Ji-Hoi Moon – Molecular Oral Microbiology

“Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples each group, in Korean moderate chronic periodontitis patients using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing.”

Human respiratory microbiome

Sinus culture poorly predicts resident microbiota – Leah J. Hauser – International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology

“The association between 16S relative abundance and detection by culture was determined using logistic regression.”

Localization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs and Interactions with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Hypoxic Mucus – Ute Schwab – Infection and Immunity

“We performed immunohistochemistry for Bcc and P. aeruginosa bacteria on 21 coinfected or singly infected CF lungs obtained at transplantation or autopsy. “

Human gut microbiome

* Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity – Sophie Leclercq – PNAS USA

“In this study, we showed that alcohol-dependent subjects with altered intestinal permeability had also altered gut-microbiota composition and activity and remained with high scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after a short-term detoxification program.”

Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula – Jia Xu – ISME Journal

“Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment.”

Modelling the emergent dynamics and major metabolites of the human colonic microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“To reduce the complexity of the system, we divide the bacterial community into 10 bacterial functional groups (BFGs) each distinguished by its substrate preferences, metabolic pathways and its preferred pH range. “

Animal models of microbiome research

Transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human gut microbiota associated rats reveals an adaptive expression of metabolic and virulence genes – Guillaume Le Bihan – Microbes and Infection

“A transcriptomic analysis was performed on the EHEC strain EDL933 incubated in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human microbiota-associated rats (HMC) compared with EDL933 incubated in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of germ-free rat (GFC).”

Early Innate Immunity to Bacterial Infection in the Lung Is Regulated Systemically by the Commensal Microbiota via Nod-Like Receptor Ligands – Thomas B. Clarke – Infection and Immunity

“Microbiota depletion caused significant defects in the early innate response to lung infection by the major human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.”

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Microbiome digest, September 22, 2014

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Temporal stability of the microbiomes of 85 adults, bacteria in breast milk, vaginal microbiome during pregnancy, water microbiomes, and Bik’s Picks.

Human microbiome general

Temporal variability is a personalized feature of the human microbiome – Gilberto E Flores – PeerJ PrePrints

“Here we address this gap in understanding by profiling the forehead, gut (fecal), palm, and tongue microbial communities in 85 adults, weekly over three months.”

Pregnancy and birth

It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant – Lars Bode – Advances in Nutrition

“This article is a summary of the symposium “It’s Alive: Microbes and Cells in Human Milk and Their Potential Benefits to Mother and Infant” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA.”

Microorganisms in the Female Genital Tract during Pregnancy: Tolerance versus Pathogenesis – Bruna de Andrade Ramos – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“We review the state of knowledge of microbe–host interactions in gestational tissues and highlight mechanisms that promote tolerance or pathogenesis.”

Determinants and pattern of care seeking for preterm newborns in a rural Bangladeshi cohort – Rashed Shah – BMC Health Services Research

“Only one-fifth (19.7%) of preterm newborns were taken to seek either preventive or curative health care.”

Human oral microbiome

Microbial signature profiles of periodontally healthy and diseased patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analysed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Nutrients with Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties – Céline Druart – Advances in Nutrition

“In this review, we describe how changes in the composition and/or activity of the gut microbiota by administration of nutrients with probiotic or prebiotic properties can modulate host gene expression and metabolism and thereby positively influence host adipose tissue development and related metabolic disorders.”

Mammal microbiome

Resistance to Antibiotics of Clinical Relevance in the Fecal Microbiota of Mexican Wildlife – Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate – PLOS ONE

“Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys, spider monkeys, tapirs and felids living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence.“

Bird microbiome

Do feather-degrading bacteria actually degrade feather colour? No significant effects of plumage microbiome modifications on feather colouration in wild great tits – Staffan Jacob – Naturwissenschaften

“Here, we tested whether (i) keratinolytic microorganisms can degrade feathers in vivo and thus modify the colour of feathers during the nesting period and (ii) whether feather microorganisms have a long-term effect on the investment in colouration of newly moulted feathers.”

Plant microbiome

Impact of swapping soils on the endophytic bacterial communities of pre-domesticated, ancient and modern maize – David Johnston-Monje – BMC Plant Biology

“The impact of these soil swaps on founder bacterial endophyte communities was tested using 16S-rDNA profiling, culturing and microbial trait phenotyping.“

Microbiota in Wheat Roots, Rhizosphere and Soil in Crops Grown in Organic and Other Production Systems – Leszek Lenc – Journal of Phytopathology

“The other two systems were intermediate, with microbial communities suggesting that the conventional system produced a slightly more suppressive environment than the integrated system. “

Soil microbiome

Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in Bleached Mottles of Tropical Podzols –
K. J. Silva, P. Vidal-Torrado, M. R. Lambais – Microbial Ecology

“In this study, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities along three Brazilian coastal podzol profiles, as well as in bleached mottles and their immediate vicinity, using 16S rRNA gene profiling.”

Water microbiome

Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river – Amanda McCormick – Environmental Science & Technology

“Results from high-throughput sequencing showed that bacterial assemblages colonizing microplastic within the river were less diverse and were significantly different in taxonomic composition compared to those from the water column and suspended organic matter.”

Application of Ion Torrent Sequencing to the Assessment of the Effect of Alkali Ballast Water Treatment on Microbial Community Diversity – Masanori Fujimoto – PLOS ONE

“The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry.”

Microbial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, India, assessed by analyzing 16S rRNA and protein-coding genes – Avinash Sharma – Annals of Microbiology

“Bacterial diversity of the Soldhar hot spring, located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India, was investigated using a clone library, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and functional genes.”

Microbial community composition and in silico predicted metabolic potential reflect biogeochemical gradients between distinct peatland types – Zuzana Urbanová and Jiří Bárta – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Species richness and microbial diversity increased significantly from bog to fen, with SSF in between, reflecting the variation in pH, nutrient availability and peat decomposability. “

A molecular survey of freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir (Svalbard, 79°N) in summer by using next-generation sequencing – Thangavelu Boopathi – Polar Biology

“In this study, freshwater microeukaryotes in an Arctic reservoir at Ny-Ǻlesund (Svalbard, Norway) were studied using the hypervariable V1–V3 small subunit rRNA and 454 pyrosequencing.”

Built Environment

Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: How do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities? – Gary M. King – Journal of Microbiology

“I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems”

Phages and viruses

Metagenomic Evaluation of the Highly Abundant Human Gut Bacteriophage CrAssphage for Source Tracking of Human Fecal Pollution – Elyse Stachler and Kyle Bibby – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here, 86 publically available metagenomes were surveyed to determine the presence and abundance of crAssphage in various environments, and to identify its utility for source tracking of human fecal pollution.”

Microbes in the news

Understanding the Microbiome and Its Impact on Human Health – Kristine Nally – HCPLive

“Instant polling at an educational session of the 2014 American Academy of Pain Management annual clinical meeting in Phoenix, AZ, revealed that only 40 percent of the approximately 350-person audience was “familiar” with the concept of a microbiome.”

Mining the microbiome for medicines – Set a thief… – The Economist

“Antibiotics are not the only things Dr Donia’s technique might turn up, for the bugs in the human microbiome spit out all sorts of other chemicals that could potentially be put to use as drugs.”

Techniques

Comparative Analysis of Functional Metagenomic Annotation and the Mappability of Short Reads – Rogan Carr and Elhanan Borenstein – MicroBEnet

“We therefore set out to develop a set of ‘best practices’ for our lab for metagenomic sequence annotation and to prove (or disprove) quantitatively that such direct functional annotation of short reads provides a valid functional representation of the sample.”

Science and publishing

Anonymous peer-review comments may spark legal battle – Kelly Servick – Science Insider

“The power of anonymous comments—and the liability of those who make them—is at the heart of a possible legal battle embroiling PubPeer, an online forum launched in October 2012 for anonymous, postpublication peer review.”

Time to Raise the Profile of Women and Minorities in Science – Brian Welle and Megan Smith – Scientific American

“Along these lines, over the past few years, we discovered some pretty ugly news about our beloved Google Doodles. “

Bik’s Picks

Immune system of newborn babies stronger than previously thought – Science Daily

“Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study.”

The Preservation Of Lonesome George – Sarah Fecht – PopSci.com

“Decades after the last giant tortoise was thought to have disappeared from the island of Pinta in the Galapagos, Lonesome George turned up in 1971 and became a conservation icon.”

 Great white sharks partly to blame for otter recovery stall – Peter Fimrite – SF Gate

“Most scientists agree that the number of animals, which are also known as southern sea otters, should be increasing, but hungry predators and a lack of food may be limiting their growth.”

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Human microbiome digest, September 16, 2014

Still catching up after my vacation, but almost there!

Some general microbiome reviews, using saliva to track human evolution, probiotics that actually change the microbiome, and several animal model studies.

 

General microbiome reviews

Which is more important for classifying microbial communities: who’s there or what they can do? – Zhenjiang Xu – ISME Journal

“… might we not instead expect that function would be substantially more important for classifying biologically meaningful groups of samples than who is providing those functions? “

Microbiome analysis – from technical advances to biological relevance – Michelle I. Smith – F1000Prime Reports

“Here, we introduce techniques that go beyond identifying the taxa present within a sample and examine the biological function of the microbiome or the host-microbiome interaction.”

From barcoding single individuals to metabarcoding biological communities: towards an integrative approach to the study of global biodiversity – Melania E. Cristescu – Trends in Ecology & Evolution

“DNA-based species identification, known as barcoding, transformed the traditional approach to the study of biodiversity science. “

Human oral microbiome

Global analysis of saliva as a source of bacterial genes for insights into human population structure and migration studies – Karsten Henne – BMC Evolutionary Biology

“By focussing on the house-keeping gene gdh .., on the virulence gene gtf .. of mitis-streptococci and on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum-group we here tested the hypothesis that bacterial genes from human saliva have the potential for distinguishing human populations.’

Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis – M. N. Zakaria – International Endodontic Journal

“Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. “

The Adenoid Microbiome in Recurrent Acute Otitis Media and Obstructive Sleep Apnea – Carolyn P. Ojano-Dirain – Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery

“Microbes are present on all adenoid specimens, however, the microbial profile differs between recurrent AOM and OSA.”

Human gut microbiome

Susceptibility to Campylobacter Infection Is Associated with the Species Composition of the Human Fecal Microbiota – Johan Dicksved – mBio

“Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers.”

Eukaryote Culturomics of the Gut Reveals New Species – Nina Gouba, Didier Raoult, Michel Drancourt – PLOS ONE

“We further explored this repertoire using PCR-sequencing and culture in seven individuals living in four tropical countries. A total of 41 microeukaryotes including 38 different fungal species and three protists were detected. “

Review: Decade in review—gut microbiota: The gut microbiota era marches on – Francisco Guarner – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

“Research on the gut microbial communities harboured in the human gut is progressing rapidly owing to the availability of novel and reliable tools for analysis.”

Modulation of Fecal Clostridiales Bacteria and Butyrate by Probiotic Intervention with Lactobacillus paracasei DG Varies among Healthy Adults – Chiara Ferrario – Journal of Nutrition

“High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota in healthy adults (23–55 y old) of both sexes, before and after 4 wk of daily consumption of a capsule containing at least 24 billion viable Lactobacillus paracasei DG cells”

Review: The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer – Petra Louis, Georgina L. Hold & Harry J. Flint – Nature Reviews Microbiology

“In this Review, we discuss the relationship between diet, microbial metabolism and CRC and argue that the cumulative effects of microbial metabolites should be considered in order to better predict and prevent cancer progression.”

Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product – Patrick Veiga – Nature Scientific Reports

“Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects.”

Gut Microbiome and Multiple Sclerosis – Pavan Bhargava, Ellen M. Mowry – Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

“We examine the different sources of information linking the gut microbiota to multiple sclerosis and examine the future avenues for utilizing the knowledge of the gut microbiome to potentially treat and prevent multiple sclerosis.”

Microbial Modulation of Insulin Sensitivity – Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Max Nieuwdorp, Fredrik Bäckhed – Cell Metabolism

“The gut microbiota has emerged as an integral factor that impacts host metabolism and has been suggested to play a vital role in metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.”

Gut Microbial Community Structure and Complications After Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study – Lee, John R – Transplantation

“We characterized bacterial composition by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA V4-V5 variable region and deep sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform.’

Human genital microbiome

Association between cigarette smoking and the vaginal microbiota: a pilot study – Rebecca M Brotman – BMC Infectious Diseases

“Smokers had a lower proportion of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. compared to non-smokers.”

Pregnancy and birth

Human Breast Milk – The Magic In The Microbiome – Science20

“Ma et al (2014 submitted manuscript) recently postulated that the opportunistic pathogen such as Staphylococcus aureus, which has been confirmed to exist in the human milk microbiome, is normally suppressed by a network of beneficial bacteria coexisted in the breast milk microbiome, but may become source of infectious mastitis when the host environment permits.”

Animal models of human microbiome research

Antibiotic Treatment of Pregnant Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Leads to Altered Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Immunological Changes in the Offspring – N. Tormo-Badia – Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

“we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers.”

Shifts in microbiota species and fermentation products in a dietary model enriched in fat and sucrose – U. Etxeberria – Beneficial Microbes

“The aim of the present study was to identify gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated metabolic changes produced in male Wistar rats fed a HFS diet for 6 weeks and compare it with the basal microbial composition.”

The short chain fatty acids, butyrate and propionate, have differential effects on the motility of the guinea pig colon – Norm R. Hurst – Neurogastroenterology & Motility

“We hypothesized that the effect of SCFAs on colonic motility varies with chain length and aimed to determine the effects of SCFAs on propagating and non-propagating contractions of guinea pig proximal and distal colon.”

Small Bowel Resection Induces Long-Term Changes in the Enteric Microbiota of Mice – J. Sommovilla – Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Bowel resection induces long-term changes in the microbial community of the murine ileum, but not at more distal sites of the gastrointestinal tract. “

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Human microbiome, August 14, 2014

Culturing TM7, antibiotics early in life and obesity, preterm labor, breast milk, two articles by Carl Zimmer and one by Jop de Vrieze.

Pregnancy and Birth

Science has a special this week on Parenting, with a couple of relevant papers:

Preterm labor: One syndrome, many causes – Roberto Romero, Sudhansu K. Dey, Susan J. Fisher – Science

“We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance.”

Nature’s first functional food – Trisha Gura – Science

“Building upon a century-old study that first indicated that milk nourished certain bacteria in infants, the new work has characterized the complexity of breast milk carbohydrates called oligosaccharides, or HMOs, that particularly nourish one species of beneficial bacteria.”

The taste of things to come – Emily Underwood – Science

“Indeed, studies in human infants and animals suggest that we may start to learn and love different flavors as early as in the womb.”

Human oral microbiome

Axenic Culture of a Candidate Division TM7 Bacterium from the Human Oral Cavity and Biofilm Interactions with Other Oral Bacteria – Valeria Soro – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Successive rounds of enrichment in laboratory media led to the isolation of a pure culture of one of these candidate division TM7 phylotypes.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of therapeutic and diet-derived xenobiotics – Rachel N. Carmody and Peter J. Turnbaugh – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“Here, we integrate results from classic and current studies of the direct and indirect impacts of the gut microbiome on the metabolism of therapeutic drugs and diet-derived bioactive compounds. “

Taking the Yuck Out of Microbiome Medicine – Carl Zimmer – National Geographic

“I can still remember the shock I felt when I heard about fecal microbiota transplants for the first time. It is not the sort of thing you forget.”

Our Microbiome May Be Looking Out for Itself – Carl Zimmer – New York Times

“But in the journal Bioessays, a team of scientists has raised a creepier possibility. Perhaps our menagerie of germs is also influencing our behavior in order to advance its own evolutionary success — giving us cravings for certain foods, for example.”

Animal models of microbiome research

Altering the Intestinal Microbiota during a Critical Developmental Window Has Lasting Metabolic Consequences – Laura M. Cox – Cell

Press coverage: Taking antibiotics early in life leaves mice prone to obesity – Jop de Vrieze

“A new study of mice shows that interrupting the development of gut microbial populations with low doses of antibiotics early in life disturbs their metabolism and boosts the risk of obesity later on.”

The Gut Microbiota and Developmental Programming of the Testis in Mice – Maha Al-Asmakh – PLOS ONE

“Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT), which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. “

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Human microbiome, July 29

Papillomaviruses in human skin, gastric mucosa in cancer patients, breast milk metabolome, microbiome of a human family, and more.

Skin microbiome

Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin
Davit Bzhalava – Nature Scientific Reports

“This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses.”

Gastric microbiome

Differences in Gastric Mucosal Microbiota Profiling in Patients with Chronic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia, and Gastric Cancer Using Pyrosequencing Methods – Chang Soo Eun – Helicobacter

“Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. “

Pregnancy and Birth

Breast milk metabolome characterization in a single phase extraction, multiplatform analytical approach – Alma Villaseñor – Analytical Chemistry

“We conducted this single-phase extraction procedure on a representative pool of BM, and characterized the metabolic composition using LC-QTOF-MS and GC-Q-MS for polar and lipidic metabolites. “

Effects of Bifidobacterial Supplementation to Pregnant Women and Infants in the
Prevention of Allergy Development in Infants and on Fecal Microbiota [PDF]- Tadao Enomoto – Allergology International

“Effects of Bifidobacterial Supplementation to Pregnant Women and Infants in the Prevention of Allergy Development in Infants and on Fecal Microbiota”

Gut microbiome
The dynamics of a family’s gut microbiota reveal variations on a theme – Patrick D Schloss – Microbiome

“Here we study a chronosequence of the gut microbiota found in eight individuals from a family consisting of two parents and six children ranging in age from two months to ten years old.”

Identifying Keystone Species in the Human Gut Microbiome from Metagenomic Timeseries Using Sparse Linear Regression – Charles K. Fisher – PLOS ONE

“Here we introduce an approach, Learning Interactions from MIcrobial Time Series (LIMITS), that overcomes these obstacles. LIMITS uses sparse linear regression with boostrap aggregation to infer a discrete-time Lotka-Volterra model for microbial dynamics. “

Antivirulence Activity of the Human Gut Metabolome – L. Caetano M. Antunes – mBio

“We found that a secreted molecule produced by clostridia acts as a strong repressor of Salmonella virulence, obliterating expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 as well as host cell invasion.”

 Metagenomic Identification of a Novel Salt Tolerance Gene from the Human Gut Microbiome Which Encodes a Membrane Protein with Homology to a brp/blh-Family β-Carotene 15,15′-Monooxygenase – Eamonn P. Culligan – PLOS ONE

“Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. “

Review: Archaea and the human gut: New beginning of an old story [DOC]- Gaci N – World Journal of Gastroenterology

“Here we provide an updated census of the archaeal diversity associated to human GIT and their possible role in the gut physiology and health.”

 

Animal models of human microbiome and disease

Maternal high protein or prebiotic fiber diets affect maternal milk composition and gut microbiota in rat dams and their offspring – Megan C. Hallam – Obesity

“Fecal microbiota was analyzed in dams at parturition and 2 weeks post-partum and in offspring at 5 and 22 weeks along with cecal digesta at termination.”

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Human microbiome, July 14

Ethnic variation in vaginal microbiomes, effect of chemotherapy on human milk, response of (murine) microbiota to infection.

Oral microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.23PM, Jul 14Advancements toward a Systems Level Understanding of the Human Oral Microbiome – Jeffrey S. Mclean – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them.”

Vaginal microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.24PM, Jul 14Ethnic Variations in Cervical Cytokine Concentrations and Vaginal Flora During Pregnancy – Riana Dutt – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“Semi-quantitative vaginal cultures and concentrations of cervical cytokines were compared between Caucasian and non-Caucasian women.”

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.25PM, Jul 14A functional metabolic map of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a beneficial human gut microbe – Almut Heinken – Journal of Bacteriology

“In this study, we present an integrated, iterative approach of computational modeling, in vitro experiments, metabolomics and genomic analysis to accelerate the identification of metabolic capabilities for poorly characterized (anaerobic) microorganisms.”

Pregnancy and birth

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.26PM, Jul 14Effect of chemotherapy on the microbiota and metabolome of human milk, a case report – Camilla Urbaniak – Microbiome

“Mature milk was collected every two weeks over a four month period from a lactating woman undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Mature milk was also collected from healthy lactating women for comparison. Microbial profiles were analyzed by 16S sequencing and the metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.”

Animal models

Clara Belzer miceDynamics of the Microbiota in Response to Host Infection – Clara Belzer – PLOS ONE

“Employing a murine model of infectious colitis with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, we generated a 2-month time-series of 16S rDNA gene profiles, and quantitatively cultured commensals, from multiple intestinal sites in infected and uninfected mice. “

Prune juice animal modelCarbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model – Giuliana D. Noratto – PLOS ONE

“Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats.”

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