Microbiome digest, September 19, 2014

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An update from the Cochrane Review Journal on probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis, oral microbiome in apical periodontitis or polycystic ovary syndrome, vaginal and gut microbiome, and bacteria in shrimp, soil, and water.
Pregnancy and birth

Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants – Khalid AlFaleh, and Jasim Anabrees – Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal

“For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 10), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2013).”

Anne Geddes Unveils New Image Of A Baby Born Too Soon – March of Dimes

“Mrs. Geddes donated the image of Alfred, who was born 8 weeks too soon, weighing just two pounds, six ounces, to the March of Dimes, which made the photo the center of its 2014 World Prematurity Day campaign.”

Human oral microbiome

Highly Diverse Microbiota in Dental Root Canals in Cases of Apical Periodontitis (Data of Illumina Sequencing) – Veiko Vengerfeldt – Journal of Endodontics

“Samples were collected under strict aseptic conditions from 12 teeth … and characterized by profiling the microbial community on the basis of the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene by using Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing combinatorial sequence-tagged polymerase chain reaction products.”

Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oral Microbiota and Systemic Antibody Responses – Aliye Akcalı – PLOS ONE

“Salivary levels of seven putative periodontal pathogens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA. “

Human genital microbiome

The Changing Landscape of the Vaginal Microbiome – Bernice Huang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“The vaginal microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem in which the microbiota play a major role in regulating parameters such as pH and in limiting the growth of potentially harmful organisms”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Diet, gut microbes, and genetics in immune function: can we leverage our current knowledge to achieve better outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases? – Vanessa A Leone – Current Opinion in Immunology

“This review summarizes our current understanding of dietary-induced changes in gut microbiota on autoimmunity in the context of IBD.”

The evolving role of the gut microbiome in human disease – Lloyd H. Kasper – FEBS Letters

“We are delighted to introduce this Special Issue, which summarizes the current understanding of the complex relationship between the gut microbiome and the host.”

Virulence genes are a signature of the microbiome in the colorectal tumor microenvironment – Michael B Burns – bioRxiv Preprints

“We characterized the microbiome in 44 primary tumor and 44 patient-matched normal colon tissues. We find that tumors harbor distinct microbial communities compared to nearby healthy tissue.”

Gut Microbiota: A Natural Adjuvant for Vaccination – Oliver Pabst, Mathias Hornef – Immunity

“In this issue of Immunity, Oh et al. (2014) reveal an unappreciated facet of how the microbiota influences immune responses. Immunity to nonadjuvanted vaccines depends on Toll-like-receptor-5-mediated sensing of the microbiota.”

Animal and bioreactor models

TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination – Jason Z. Oh – Immunity

“Vaccination of Trl5−/− mice resulted in reduced antibody titers and lower frequencies of plasma cells, demonstrating a role for TLR5 in immunity to TIV. This was due to a failure to sense host microbiota. “

In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch – Melliana Jonathan – Food Chemistry

“This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. “

Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 – Edna P. Nyangale – Anaerobe

“Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo.”

Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function – Benjamin D Shogan – Microbiome journal

“Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery … and the 6th day following surgery …, we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats.”

General human microbiome

Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection – January T. Salas, Theresa L. Chang – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

“Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have altered microbiome associated with immune activation that impacts the consquence of disease progression”

Shrimp microbiome

Characterization of the intestinal microbiota in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed diets with different lipid sources – Meiling Zhang – Aquaculture

“an Illumina-based sequencing method was used to examine the intestinal bacterial composition of L. vannamei following six diets with different lipid sources.”

Soil microbiome

Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil –
S. Lladó – Journal of Hazardous Materials

“Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided”

Water microbiome

High-throughput sequencing reveals neustonic and planktonic microbial eukaryote diversity in coastal waters – Joe D. Taylor and Michael Cunliffe – Journal of Phycology

“Here, we use high-throughput 18S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize protist and fungal diversity in the SML at a coastal time-series station and compare with underlying plankton assemblages. “

Microbes in the news

Sex in the Sink: Gene-Swapping Bacteria Are Making New Superbugs – Maggie Fox – NBC News

“Over the past decade, there has been a steady and alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a trend that poses a serious threat to the U.S. medical system,” Segre and colleagues wrote in their report.

Science, publishing, and career

To Get More Out of Science, Show the Rejected Research – Brendan Nyhan – New York Times

“In a new white paper, I propose that the American Political Science Association offer options for articles in a Registered Reports-style format. “

Pushing Women and People of Color Out of Science Before We Go In – Jennifer Selvidge – Huffington Post

“The misogyny and racism I experienced and saw at MIT became more and more concerning, between professors making “get back in the kitchen jokes” and hearing about what seemed to be legions of male PhD student sexually harassing woman undergraduates.”

Bik’s Picks

I want one! These adorable giant African rats detect land mines and TB for a living – Bec Crew – Scientific American

“So yesterday, I adopted an unborn land-mine-detecting African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) from Tanzania. “

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new ‘sleep node’ in the brain – Science Daily

“A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. “

Experts: Science Class Can Dazzle With Less Danger – Dan Elliott – ABC News

“On Sept. 3, 13 people, mostly children, were burned by a methanol-fueled flash fire during a science demonstration at the Terry Lee Wells Nevada Discovery Museum in Reno.”

(Satire) Bono Showcases New Genome Sequencers, The i-LUMINA 6 and i-LUMINA 6 plus – the Allium

“Lead singer with the rock band U2, Bono, revealed the latest in genome sequencing technology at a gala event in the Moscone Center in San Francisco, yesterday.”

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