Microbiome digest, October 8, 2014

Blogging from our yearly retreat in Santa Cruz, California: Rethinking Enterotypes, Wolbachia phylogenomics,  hydrothermal vents, and the influence of salamanders on soil microbiome.

Human Microbiome General

Genes & cells: Body microbes make useful molecules: Human microbiome produces thousands of drug candidates – Tina Hesman Saey – Science News

Human Gut Microbiome

Rethinking “Enterotypes” – Dan Knights – Cell Host and Microbe

“However, as discussed here, several different methods of collapsing enterotype variation into a few discrete clusters suggest that enterotype distribution is continuous and can vary widely within an individual.”

Fecal Bacterial Community Changes Associated with Isoflavone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women after Soy Bar Consumption – Cindy H. Nakatsu – PLOS ONE

“Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03) before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. “

Insect microbiome

Phylogenomic analyses uncover origin and spread of the Wolbachia pandemic – Michael Gerth  – Nature Communications

“Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of Wolbachia supergroup relationships based on new whole-genome-shotgun data.”

Coral microbiome

Comparing Bacterial Community Composition of Healthy and Dark Spot-Affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean – Christina A. Kellogg – PLOS ONE

“Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. “

Soil Microbiome

Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska – Luis N. Morgado – Global Change Biology

“We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra.”

A metagenomics-based approach to the top-down effect on the detritivore food web: a salamanders influence on fungal communities within a deciduous forest – Donald M. Walker – Ecology and Evolution

“From each sample, DNA was extracted, fungal-specific amplification performed, and 454 pyrosequencing was used to sequence the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region and partial ribosomal large subunit (LSU).”

Water microbiome

Evolutionary Strategies of Viruses, Bacteria and Archaea in Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems Revealed through Metagenomics – Rika E Anderson – PLOS ONE

“Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, “

Metabolomics

Discovery and Characterization of Gut Microbiota Decarboxylases that Can Produce the Neurotransmitter Tryptamine – Brianna B. Williams – -Cell Host and Microbe

“Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter

Techniques

Selective Microbial Genomic DNA Isolation Using Restriction Endonucleases – Helen E. Barnes – PLOS ONE

“Using synthetic genome mixtures, we demonstrate 80% recovery of Escherichia coli genomic DNA even when only femtogram quantities are spiked into 10 µg of human DNA background.”

 More Microbiology

Pseudomonas aeruginosa eradicates Staphylococcus aureus by manipulating the host immunity – Erwan Pernet – Nature Communications

“Our results indicate that a bacterium can eradicate another bacterium by manipulating the host immunity.”

Preparation and evaluation of low-calorie functional ice cream containing inulin, lactulose and Bifidobacterium lactis  – Majid Hashemi- International Journal of Dairy Technology

“This study was aimed to investigate the effects of replacing 5% fat and sugar by inulin and lactulose, respectively, on the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the ice cream. “

Microbes in the News

Second Genome, Mayo Clinic team up to explore the microbiome – Stephanie M. Lee – SF Gate

“Second Genome will identify up to eight conditions in which the microbiome potentially plays a role, and the Mayo Clinic will provide human clinical samples for patients with those diseases.”

 Oral health affects overall health – PhillyTrib

“The evidence shows that an infection from periodontitis, or gum disease, can put you at risk for other serious conditions like heart disease, stroke and more.”

Safety Bees: Bacteria From Bees Used To Fight Infections – The Ledger

 “A group of 13 lactic-acid bacteria found in fresh honey from the honey stomach of bees could be the key to bringing an old folk remedy into modern science”

Bik’s Picks  

How dinosaurs divided their meals at the Jurassic dinner table – Science Daily

“How the largest animals to have ever walked on Earth fed, and how this allowed them to live alongside one another in prehistoric ecosystems, is the subject of new research.”

Imitation, Genetic Lineages, and Time Influenced the Morphological Evolution of the Violin – Daniel H. Chitwood – PLOS ONE

“Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history.”

Cat Watch 2014: What’s it like being a cat? – BBC

“Cats are at a crucial point in their evolutionary journey as they transform from solitary hunters to domestic pets, a study by the BBC and the Royal Veterinary College has revealed.”
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General microbiology and science digest, October 7, 2014

Transmission of Staph aureus in the hospital, a new assembler tool, metabolomics of the human gut microbiome, and a polio virus spill in Belgium.

More Microbes

Absence of Patient-to-Patient Intrahospital Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus as Determined by Whole-Genome Sequencing – S. Wesley Long – mBio

“To identify patient-to-patient intrahospital transmission using high-resolution genetic analysis, we sequenced the genomes of a consecutive set of 398 S. aureus isolates from sterile-site infections. “

Bioinformatics

Improved Assemblies Using a Source-Agnostic Pipeline for MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge) of Contigs – Matthew Scholz, Chien-Chi Lo & Patrick S. G. Chain – Nature Scientific Reports

“MeGAMerge consistently outperforms individual assembly methods, producing larger contigs with an increased number of predicted genes, without replication of data. “

Inferring phylogenies of evolving sequences without multiple sequence alignment – Cheong Xin Chan – Nature Scientific Reports

“Here, using simulated sequence sets of various sizes in both nucleotides and amino acids, we systematically assess the accuracy of phylogenetic inference using an alignment-free approach, based on D2 statistics, under different evolutionary scenarios. “

Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome – Coursera / University of Colorado Boulder

“Join us on a guided tour of the human gut and its microscopic inhabitants.”

Metabolomics

Modelling the emergent dynamics and major metabolites of the human colonic microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“To reduce the complexity of the system, we divide the bacterial community into 10 bacterial functional groups (BFGs) each distinguished by its substrate preferences, metabolic pathways and its preferred pH range. “

Microbes in the news

* Petri Dish: The third branch of life – David Woodland – Summit Daily

“In addition to being an interesting branch on the tree of life, archaebacteria have turned out to be an incredibly valuable source of new products for science and industry. “

Pharmaceutical Giant GlaxoSmithKline “Accidentally” Released 45 Liters of Concentrated Live Polio Virus in the Environment – Global Research

“As reported to ECDC by Belgian authorities, on 2 September 2014, following a human error, 45 litres of concentrated live polio virus solution were released into the environment by the pharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in Rixensart city, Belgium.”

Science, publishing and career

* Science is innate! (behind a paywall, even at Stanford) – Jack A Gilbert – Genome Biology

“….when I am asked, as I often am, about how my research findings have influenced my day-to-day activities, I like to take a step back and think about what it means to be a scientist.”

Why I have taken a leave of absence from Science: to protest the abrupt firing of 4 colleagues – Michael Balter – Letter to Science

“Thus it is particularly painful and sad for me to tell you that I will be taking a three-month leave of absence in protest of recent events at Science and within its publishing organization, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Bik’s Picks

Killer whales learn to communicate like dolphins – Science Daily

“…killer whales can engage in cross-species vocal learning: when socialized with bottlenose dolphins, they shifted the sounds they made to more closely match their social partners.”

NASA selects astrobiologists to study life origins and extraterrestrial possibilities – Jim Algar – Tech Times

“NASA announced 5-year grants adding up to nearly $50 million for seven research groups across the U .S. to study life in the universe and its origins, distribution, evolution and future.”

The most passive aggressive acknowledgement ever – BioDataGanache – SciEasterEggs

“The authors in this paper put some serious time in on this sucker, and they wanted to make a statement about it.”

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Microbiome digest, September 18, 2014

It’s an exciting day at MicrobiomeDigest, with an Ig Nobel Prize awarded to the baby poop sausages paper, the Breaking Bad of gut microbiota, the microbiome of salami, and how bacteria can help in agriculture. Here we go:

Respiratory microbiome

Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days – Maya Nadimpalli – Occupational & Environmental Medicine (see also below)

“Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work.”

Human gut microbiome

Breaking Bad – the two sides of gut microbiota in portal hypertension – Gautam Mehta and Rajeshwar P Mookerjee – Liver International

“In this issue of Liver International, Rincon and colleagues bring these threads together by exploring the effects of modulating gut flora on portal hypertension in the context of decompensated cirrhosis.”

Pregnancy and birth

Winners of the 2014 Ig Nobel Prize in Nutrition – ABC News

2014 IgNobel Prize in Nutrition: “Raquel Rubio, Anna Jofra, Belen Martin, Teresa Aymerich and Margarita Garriga, for their study of using infant fecal bacteria as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.”

Plant microbiome

Why Tiny Microbes Mean Big Things for Farming – Peter Andrey Smith – National Geographic

“The soil-dwelling bacteria that we walk on every day are working their way into technologies that could help feed the world.”

Plant interactions with other organisms: molecules, ecology and evolution – Amy T. Austin and Carlos L. Ballaré – New Phytologist

“There are still many open questions regarding how plant interactions with other organisms are shaped by evolutionary forces over time. “

Food microbiology

Bacterial diversity in typical Italian salami at different ripening stages as revealed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons – Justyna Połka – Food Microbiology

“Salame Piacentino PDO was analysed by HTS (Illumina) of 16S rRNA amplicons.”

Techniques

1-day bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol 3350 is as effective and safe as a 3-day preparation for colonoscopy in children – Serge A Sorser – BMC Research Notes

“There were no differences between the groups in efficacy of bowel preparation based on colonoscopic grading or the safety of the preparation.”

Viruses and phages

Metagenomic Analysis of Double-stranded DNA viruses in Healthy Adults – Kristine M. Wylie – BMC Biology

“We analyzed eukaryotic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, together with dsDNA replicative intermediates of single-stranded DNA viruses, in metagenomic sequence data generated by the HMP. “

see also: Your own personal virome – Biome – BioMedCentral

“If life gives you lemons, you make lemonade. And if your bacterial DNA datasets give you viral DNA contaminants, you use them to study the virome. “

Bioinformatics

Estimating overannotation across prokaryotic genomes using BLAST+, UBLAST, LAST and BLAT – Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb and Brigitte Hudy-Yuffa – BMC Research Notes

“Despite faster programs miss sequence matches otherwise found by NCBI?s BLAST, the overannotation estimates are very similar and thus these programs can be used with confidence for this task.”

Antibiotic and resistance

Single-molecule sequencing to track plasmid diversity of hospital-associated carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae – Sean Conlan – Science Translational Medicine

“we performed comprehensive surveillance and genomic sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center patient population and hospital environment. “

U.S. Lays Out Strategy to Combat Crisis of Antibiotic Resistance – Sabrina Tavernise – NY Times

“The Obama administration on Thursday announced measures to tackle the growing threat of antibiotic resistance”

Factory-Farm Workers Found to Carry High Levels of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria – Willy Blackmore – TakePart (see also above)

“While only one worker was found to be carrying MRSA after nostril swabs were tested, 86 percent carried staph bacteria associated with livestock—far higher than the general population. “

Microbes in the News

Microbirth: The Extra Question Every Expectant Mother Needs To Ask – Toni Harman – Huffington Post

“The doctor or midwife looks at the expectant mother blankly. “I’m sorry. I have never heard of the microbiome. And I’ve never heard of Microbirth.”

Science, publishing, and career

Rhubarb pie and science – Sandy Becker – Science Working Life

“When I am asked how I became a developmental biologist, I say, “Jim hired me for my rhubarb pie and my Phi Beta Kappa key, and the rest is history.””

Can Post-Publication Peer-Reviews Increase Research Transparency? – Liz Allen – Berkeley Bitts

“When Peer Review is done in the open by named individuals, we believe it should be more constructive and issues will surface more quickly.”

 

Bik’s Picks

Winners of the 2014 Ig Nobel Awards – ABC News

“The 2014 Ig Nobel winners, awarded Thursday at Harvard University by the Annals of Improbable Research magazine”

Europeans drawn from three ancient ‘tribes’ – Paul Rincon – BBC News

“The modern European gene pool was formed when three ancient populations mixed within the last 7,000 years, Nature journal reports.”

Bowl Half Empty: Dogs Can Be Pessimists – Richard Farrell – Discovery

“New PhD research out of the University of Sydney by Dr. Melissa Starling, from the school’s Faculty of Veterinary Science, sought to find out if dogs had underlying personalities that tended toward either optimism of pessimism.”

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Human microbiome digest, August 25, 2014

Oral microbiome in the settings of periodontitis, smoking and antibiotic resistance, respiratory microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis, a decade of molecular papers on vaginal microbiome, and gut bacteria protecting against food allergies.

Oral microbiome

* Microbial Signature Profiles of Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analyzed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM. “

Smoking decreases structural and functional resilience in the subgingival ecosystem – Vinayak Joshi – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“16S cloning and sequencing was used for bacterial identification and multiplexed bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators.”

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae – Arne Søraas – Journal of Oral Microbiology

“No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. “

Clonality of bacterial consortia in root canals and subjacent gingival crevices – Nipuna B. Parahitiyawa – Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry

“The four niches studied yielded 186 clones representing 54 phylotypes. Clone library comparisons using LIBSHUFF software indicated that each niche was inhabited by a unique flora. “

Respiratory microbiome

* Antimicrobial resistance in the respiratory microbiota of people with cystic fibrosis
Laura J Sherrard – The Lancet

“Strategies to manage antimicrobial resistance consist of new antibiotics or localised delivery of antimicrobial agents, iron sequestration, inhibition of quorum-sensing, and resistome analysis.”

Evidence that Intraspecific Trait Variation among Nasal Bacteria Shapes the Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus – Ben Libberton – Infection and Immunity

“We characterized S. aureus growth inhibition by the culturable bacterial aerobe consortia of 60 nasal microbiomes, and this revealed intraspecific variation in growth inhibition and that inhibitory isolates clustered within communities that were culture negative for S. aureus. “

Gary Huffnagle: rewriting the rules on the lung microbiome – David Holmes – The Lancet

“The ideas being generated by Huffnagle at the moment are all about the lung microbiome and its role in the pathogenesis of everything from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to asthma, and they’re starting to make waves.”

Vaginal microbiome

* The Vaginal Microbiota: What Have We Learned after a Decade of Molecular Characterization? – Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert – PLOS ONE

“We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database … to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions.”

Gut microbiome

Modelling the Emergent Dynamics and Major Metabolites of the Human Colonic Microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“We present here a first attempt at modelling microbial dynamics in the human colon incorporating both uncertainty and adaptation. “

Animal models of human microbiome

Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization – Andrew T. Stefka – PNAS USA

“By selectively colonizing gnotobiotic mice, we demonstrate that the allergy-protective capacity is conferred by a Clostridia-containing microbiota. “

Pregnancy and Birth

Researcher Granted $1 Million to Study Deadly Bacteria Passed to Babies From 25 Percent of Mothers – Infection Control Today

“Narayana Sthanam, PhD, professor of structural biology in the Department of Optometry, has been awarded a four-year, $1 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to further Group B Streptococcus research.”

Microbiome News

* Satire: Study Reveals Microbiome To Be Master-Controller Of All Humanity – The Allium

“Science has already found out that your microbiome at birth decides your taste in clothes and music, whether you are going to be great footballer like David Beckham or a great political leader like Sarah Palin.”

9 questions you were too grossed out to ask about the bacteria living on you – Susannah Locke – Vox

“What researchers have discovered is that our bodies are essentially complex ecosystems of tiny living things. “

Interview with Prof. Yolanda Sanz, project coordinator of My New Gut – Kristina Campbell – Gut Microbiota For Health

“Professor Yolanda Sanz has been appointed MyNewGut’s project coordinator and leads the project’s human intervention trials on the gut microbiome’s ability to metaolise (sic) nutrients and influence energy balance. “

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Human microbiome, July 22

Transcriptome in periodontitis, metabolomic analysis of breath in IBD patients, cystic fibrosis microbiome, and Clostridium difficile.

Human microbiome general

Review: Deciphering the tête-à-tête between the microbiota and the immune system – Neeraj K. Surana and Dennis L. Kasper – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in immunologic development, highlighting mechanistic principles that can guide future work.”

Meeting report: Human microbiome science: vision for the future, Bethesda, MD, July 24 to 26, 2013 – Jacques Ravel and many others – Microbiome

“This report summarizes the presentations but also describes what is needed for human microbiome research to move forward and deliver medical translational applications.”

Metabolomics

Metabolomic analysis of breath volatile organic compounds reveals unique breathprints in children with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study – N. Patel – Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

“Exhaled breath was collected and analysed using a selective ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) to identify new markers or patterns of IBD.”

Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation, and insulin sensitivity are associated with physical function in functionally-limited older adults – Michael S. Lustgarten – Aging Cell

“Collectively, these data suggest that gut microbial metabolism, PPAR-α activation, and insulin sensitivity may be involved in mechanisms that underlie physical function in functionally-limited older adults.”

Oral microbiome

Community-wide transcriptome of the oral microbiome in subjects with and without periodontitis – Ana E Duran-Pinedo – ISME J

“We report here the in situ genome-wide transcriptome of the subgingival microbiome in six periodontally healthy individuals and seven individuals with periodontitis.”

Respiratory microbiome

Predominant pathogen competition and core microbiota divergence in chronic airway infection – Geraint B Rogers – ISME Journal

“..we analysed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data generated previously from 60 adult bronchiectasis patients, whose airway microbiota was dominated by either P. aeruginosa or H. influenzae.”

Pyrosequencing reveals transient cystic fibrosis lung microbiome changes with intravenous antibiotics – Daniel J. Smith – European Respiratory Journal

“Microbial community profiles were derived through analysis of bacterial-derived 16S ribosomal RNA by pyrosequencing and changes over time were compared.”

Review: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice – Geraint B Rogers – Thorax

“In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. “

Propionibacterium-Produced Coproporphyrin III Induces Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation and Biofilm Formation – Michael S. Wollenberg – mBio

“We observed that crude extracts of cell-free conditioned medium from Propionibacterium spp. induce S. aureus aggregation in culture. “

Gut microbiome

Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection – Susana Fuentes – ISME Journal

“Global composition and network analysis of the microbiota was performed in faecal samples from nine patients with recurrent CDI. Analyses were performed before and after duodenal donor faeces infusion, and during a follow-up of 10 weeks. The microbiota data were compared with that of the healthy donors. “

Review: Clostridium difficile and the microbiota – Anna M. Seekatz and Vincent B. Young – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“Both human and animal models have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota’s capability of providing colonization resistance against C. difficile.”

Vaginal microbiome

Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance – Suleyman Yildirim – ISME Journal

“We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. … humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity.

Semen microbiome

The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection – Cindy M. Liu – PLOS Pathogens

“HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART.”

Antibiotic perturbation and microbiome

Bacteria, phages and pigs: the effects of in-feed antibiotics on the microbiome at different gut locations – Torey Looft – ISME Journal

“In this study, we defined the lumenal and mucosal bacterial communities from the small intestine (ileum) and large intestine (cecum and colon) plus feces, and characterized the effects of in-feed antibiotics (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine and penicillin (ASP250)) on these communities. “

Impact of Antibiotics on the Intestinal Microbiota and on the Treatment of Shiga-toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infections – Szych, Jolanta – Current Pharmaceutical Design

“This review evaluates the current literature based on the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota and the critical role of intestinal bacteria in controlling infection and subsequent clinical disease caused by STEC and Salmonella, and the transmissibility of these important pathogens”

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Human microbiome, July 17

Protozoa detection in fecal samples from children, airway microbiome, and Staphylococcus transmission between mother and child.

Oral microbiome

Oral Lihong GuoIntercellular communications in multispecies oral microbial communities – Lihong Guo – Frontiers in Microbiology

“This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes participate in intercellular communications with co-inhabitants through cell contact-dependent physical interactions, metabolic interdependencies, as well as coordinative signaling systems to establish and maintain balanced microbial communities.”

Respiratory microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 4.58.37 PMAirway Microbiome Dynamics in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – Yvonne J. Huang – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“In this study, temporal changes in the airway microbiome before, at the onset of, and after an acute exacerbation were examined in 60 sputum samples collected from subjects enrolled in a longitudinal study of bacterial infection in COPD.”

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 4.59.26 PMTime between Collection and Storage Significantly Influences Bacterial Sequence Composition in Sputum Samples from Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infections – Leah Cuthbertson – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“Samples were treated with propidium monoazide to distinguish live from dead cells prior to DNA extraction, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize their bacterial compositions.”

Gut microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 4.58.09 PMThe devil lies in the details: How variations in polysaccharide fine-structure impact the physiology and evolution of gut microbes – Eric C. Martens – Journal of Molecular Biology

“Here, we review the recent literature on this topic and posit that numerous, subtle variations in polysaccharides diversify the spectrum of available nutrient niches, each of which may be best filled by a subset of microorganisms that possess the corresponding proteins to recognize and degrade different carbohydrates”

Pregnancy and birth

Protozoa pediatricDetection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR – L. Maas – Clinical Microbiology and Infection

“The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study.”

Staph transmTransmission of Staphylococcus aureus between mothers and infants in an African setting – F. Schaumburg – Clinical Microbiology and Infection

“We aimed to investigate the transmission of S. aureus between mothers and their newborns during the first year after delivery in an African setting. In a longitudinal cohort study, colonization of Gabonese mother–infant pairs was assessed at delivery and after 1, 9 and 12 months.”

Commentary: Travelling within the fetal gut: simple rules for an arduous journey
Qiling Xu – BMC Microbiology

“A recent paper in BMC Biology addresses this issue with live imaging of gut explants from mouse embryos.”

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Human microbiome, July 7

Phages and CRISPRs in human mouth, new metagenomes from MetaHit, and vaginal microbiota.

General microbiome

Journal Nurse PractionersReview: An Overview of the Microbiome and the Effects of Antibiotics – Hillary Taggart – The Journal for Nurse Practitioners

“This review provides a basic introduction of what the microbiome is and how it plays a role in obesity, gastrointestinal, immune, and mental health, including a brief mention of implications for the pediatric population.”

Oral microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.54PM, Jul 07Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque – Mayuri Naidu (with David Pride) – BMC Microbiology

“We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type.”

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.45PM, Jul 07 1An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome – Junhua Li – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we combined 249 newly sequenced samples of the Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHit) project with 1,018 previously sequenced samples to create a cohort from three continents that is at least threefold larger than cohorts used for previous gene catalogs. “

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.45PM, Jul 07Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes – H Bjørn Nielsen (and 142 other authors) – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we present a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences.”

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.47PM, Jul 07Commensal microbial regulation of natural killer T cells at the frontiers of the mucosal immune system – Sebastian Zeissig, Richard S. Blumberg – FEBS Letters

“Here, we outline the mechanisms of bidirectional cross-talk between the microbiota and CD1d-restricted NKT cells and discuss how a perturbation of these processes can contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated disorders at mucosal surfaces.”

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.48PM, Jul 07Review/Book chapter Gastrointestinal microbiota – Katherine Stephens – Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Gastroenterology

“This chapter summarizes the functions of the human gastrointestinal tract. A main function of the GI microbiota is modulation of the immune system. The chapter focues on the factors influencing composition of the microbiota.”

Pathogens journalPerturbation of the Human Microbiome as a Contributor to Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Bayan Missaghi – Pathogens

“This review presents an outline of the loss of a normal microbiome as an etiology of immune dysregulation and IBD pathogenesis initiation. “

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.49PM, Jul 07 137 People Want to Peer Inside Your Poop…You Know, for Science – Angus Chen – Discover Magazine

“Rob Knight, a microbiologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and his colleagues want poop from every person in America.”

Mediterranean Diet and Health: Food Effects on Gut Microbiota and Disease Control
Federica Del Chierico – International Journal of Molecular Sciences

“For this purpose, we present a study proposal relying on the generation of individual gut microbiota maps from MD-aware children/adolescents. “

Respiratory microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 02.02PM, Jul 07Evidence that intraspecific trait variation among nasal bacteria shapes the distribution of Staphylococcus aureus – Ben Libberton – Infection and Immunity

“We characterised S. aureus growth inhibition by the culturable bacterial aerobe consortia of 60 nasal microbiomes, revealing intraspecific variation in growth inhibition and that inhibitory isolates clustered within communities that were culture-negative for S. aureus. “

Vaginal microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.53PM, Jul 07Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of healthy Canadian women through the menstrual cycle – Bonnie Chaban – Microbiome

“Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the universal target region of the cpn60 gene and generate amplicons representative of the microbial community. Amplicons were pyrosequenced, assembled into operational taxonomic units, and analyzed. “

Pregnancy

The effects of designation and volume of neonatal care on mortality and morbidity outcomes of very preterm infants in England: retrospective population-based cohort study – SI Watson – BMJ Open

“High-volume neonatal care provided at the hospital of birth may protect against in-hospital mortality in very preterm infants. “

Understanding the Complexity of the Immune System during Pregnancy – Karen Racicot – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“In this review, we discuss our present understanding of the ‘immunity of pregnancy’ in the context of the response to cervical and placental infections and how these responses affect both the mother and the fetus.”

 

Animal models of human microbiota or disease

Screen Shot 2014-07-07 at 11.00.33 PMGalacto‐oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification – Satoshi U. Furuse – Physiological Reports

“The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. “

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