June 22, 2017

Effects of weight loss treatment on gut microbiota and serum metabolites, mouse gut microbiota can alter visceral sensitivity, a review discussing the microbiota’s ability to shape the maternal immune system.

Pregnancy and early life

Review: The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy – Gil Mor – Nature Reviews Immunology

Human oral microbiome

Review: Microbiome and Microbial Biofilm Profiles of Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review – Gloria Inés Lafaurie – Journal of Periodontology

Human gut microbiome

Bifidobacterium-Rich Fecal Donor May Be a Positive Predictor for Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome – S Mizuno – Digestion

Microbiota in anorexia nervosa: The triangle between bacterial species, metabolites and psychological tests – Francesca Borgo – PLOS ONE

Animal experiments

Fructo-oligosaccharides and intestinal barrier function in a methionine–choline-deficient mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis – Kotaro Matsumoto – PLOS ONE

Microbiota regulates visceral pain in the mouse – Pauline Luczynski – eLife

Metagenomic characterization of the effect of feed additives on the gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome of feedlot cattle – Milton Thomas – bioRxiv

Animal microbiome

Combining ‘omics and microscopy to visualize interactions between the Asian citrus psyllid vector and the Huanglongbing pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the insect gut – Angela Kruse – PLOS ONE

Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Application of struvite alters the antibiotic resistome in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere – Qing-Lin Chen – Environmental Science & Technology

Water and extremophile microbiome

Synergistic hydrolysis of xylan using novel xylanases, β-xylosidases, and an α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 – Di Huang – Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Longitudinal variation of microbial communitiesin benthic biofilms and association with hydrological and physicochemical conditions in glacier-fed streams – Ze Ren – Freshwater Science

Control of Sulfide Production in High Salinity Bakken Shale Oil Reservoirs by Halophilic Bacteria Reducing Nitrate to Nitrite – Biwin A An – Frontiers in Microbiology

Phages and viruses

Viral and Bacterial Communities of Colorectal Cancer – Geoffrey D Hannigan – bioRxiv

Plasmids, Viruses, And Other Circular Elements In Rat Gut – Tue Sparholt Jørgensen – bioRxiv


The metagenomic data life-cycle: standards and best practices – Petra ten Hoopen – GigaScience

PhylOligo: a package to identify contaminant or untargeted organism sequences in genome assemblies – Ludovic Mallet – Bioinformatics


Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention – Ruixin Liu – Nature Medicine

Integrating Microbiome and Metabolome Data to Understand Infectious Airway Disease – Robert A Quinn – American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

Coupling targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry for metabolome-microbiome-wide association studies of human fecal samples – Alexey V Melnik – Analytical Chemistry


Incorporating comparative genomics into the Design-Test-Learn cycle of microbial strain engineering – Maria Sardi – FEMS Yeast Research

Different amplicon targets for sequencing-based studies of fungal diversity – Francesca De Filippis – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Microbes in the news

Modified viruses deliver death to antibiotic-resistant bacteria – Sara Reardon – Nature

Microbes on the market

EnteroBiotix raises £500k in first round of equity funding – Philip Gates – Insider.co.uk

Microbiotica To Present At Microbiome Drug Development Summit – BioSpace

Bacteria art

MIT Researchers Use Light-Illuminated Bacteria to Make ‘Living’ Pictures – Kristin Fawcett – Mental Floss

The world’s art is under attack—by microbes – Kate Baggaley – Popular Science

Science, publishing, and career

Editorial: Don’t let Europe’s open-science dream drift – Nature

June 21, 201

Today’s Microbiome Digest has quite a few articles from water environment. Both articles I would like to highlight are with cyanobacteria as stars. The first one from Anne D. Jungblut reports on Antarctic cynobacteria diversity, while the second one reveals the new freshwater cyanobacterial genome. One more thing to highlight come from news. Exxon Mobil Corps and Sintetic Genomics Inc have announced a new breakthrough with genetically modified algae which was able to convert 40% of CO2 to lipids, up from the previous 15%. Algae are still far away from being able to run the process at commercial scale and replace fossil fuels, but we love algae! Enjoy this summer reading.

Events and jobs

Microbiome Research Scientist (BS or MS or PhD) – St. John of God Foundation for Research and Teaching, Barcelona, Spain

Quality Associate Specialist – Merck, Durham, NC, US

Microbiology Manager OR Microbiology Laboratory Manager Opening, Madison, WI, US
General microbiome

A null model for microbial diversification – Timothy J. Straub – PNAS

Pregnancy and early life

Association between breast milk bacterial communities and establishment and development of the infant gut microbiome – JAMA Pediatrics
Human skin microbiome

Topical antimicrobial treatments can elicit shifts to resident skin bacterial communities and reduce colonization by competitors – Adam J. SanMiguel – Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Human gut microbiome

Liver transplant modulates gut microbial dysbiosis and cognitive function in cirrhosis – Jasmohan S. Bajaj – Liver Transplatation

How members of the human gut microbiota overcome the sulfation problem posed by glycosaminoglycans – Alan Cartmell – PNAS

Microbiome restoration diet improves digestion, cognition and physical and emotional wellbeing – Kate Lawrence – PLOS
Animal microbiome 

The role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the gut microbiota in zebrafish – Keaton Stagaman – The ISME Journal
Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Biofilm formation enables free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions – Di Wang – The ISME Journal

Novel antibiotic resistance determinants from agricultural soil exposed to antibiotics widely used in human medicine and animal farming – Calvin Ho-Fung Lau – Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Water and extremophile microbiome 

Animal-like prostaglandins in marine microalgae – Valeria Di Dato – The ISME Journal

Niche partitioning of diverse sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at hydrothermal vents – Dimitri V Meier – The ISME Journal

Identification of dimethylamine monooxygenase in marine bacteria reveals a metabolic bottleneck in the methylated amine degradation pathway – Ian Lidbury – The ISME Journal

DNA extraction replicates improve diversity and compositional dissimilarity in metabarcoding of eukaryotes in marine sediments – Anders Lanzén – PLOS

Ecological dynamics and co-occurrence among marine phytoplankton, bacteria and myoviruses shows microdiversity matters – David M Needham – The ISME Journal

Integrated metabolism in sponge–microbe symbiosis revealed by genome-centered metatranscriptomics – Lucas Moitinho-Silva – The ISME Journal

Spontaneous mutations of a model heterotrophic marine bacterium – Ying Sun – The ISME Journal

Plastid thylakoid architecture optimizes photosynthesis in diatoms – Serena Flori –  Nature Communications

Evolutionary radiation of lanthipeptides in marine cyanobacteria – Andres Cubillos-Ruiz –  PNAS

Using Captain Scott’s Discovery specimens to unlock the past: has Antarctic cyanobacterial diversity changed over the last 100 years? Anne D. Jungblut – Proceedings of the Royal Society B

Novel Synechococcus Genomes Reconstructed from Freshwater Reservoirs – Pedro J. Cabello-Yeves – Frontiers in Microbiology

Functional Gene Diversity and Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in an Estuary-Shelf Environment – Yu Wang – Frontiers in Microbiology

Atribacteria from the Subseafloor Sedimentary Biosphere Disperse to the Hydrosphere through Submarine Mud Volcanoes – Tatsuhiko Hoshino – Frontiers in Microbiology
Phages and viruses

Effect of acute predation with bacteriophage on intermicrobial aggression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Patrick R. Secor

The proBAM and proBed standard formats: enabling a seamless integration of genomics and proteomics data – Gerben Menschaert –

Microbes in the news 

Zombie bacteria and viruses in melting permafrost are waking up  

ExxonMobil and Synthetic Genomics Report Breakthrough in Algae Biofuel Research

Gut microbiome changes linked to numerous biomarkers of type 2 diabetes 

Funky tasting beer? Biofilms may be to blame, MSU researchers say

Bacteria in Your Coughs And Sneezes Can Stay Alive in The Air For Up to 45 Minutes

Microbes on the market

This Company Uses the Human Microbiome to Discover New Disease Mechanisms

June 20, 2017

Great articles from bioRxiv today!

Events and jobs
Microbiology Clinical Laboratory Scientist OR Microbiology CLS Opening – KA Recruiting – San Francisco, CA

Acting QC Specialist: Microbiology – Johnson and Johnson – Cork, Ireland

Human vaginal microbiome
Effects of intrauterine contraception on the vaginal microbiota – Christine M. Bassis – Contraception

Human gut microbiome
**Environmental factors dominate over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota composition – Daphna Rothschild – bioRxiv**

Review: Role of gut microbiota against calcium oxalate – Humaira Sadaf – Microbial Pathogenesis

Review: Glucocorticoids and gut bacteria: “The GALF Hypothesis” in the metagenomic era – David J. Morris – Steroids

Review: The microbiome-gut-brain axis: implications for schizophrenia and antipsychotic induced weight gain – S. Kanji – European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Animal experiments
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of adult healthy warm-blooded mares following feeding with Jerusalem artichoke meal – M. Glatter – Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

Water and extremophile microbiome
Review: Phototrophic biofilms: diversity, ecology and applications – Asha Bharti – Journal of Applied Phycology

Built environment
Response of microbial community function to fluctuating geochemical conditions within a legacy radioactive waste trench environment – Xabier Vázquez-Campos – bioRxiv

Accelerating anodic biofilms formation and electron transfer in microbial fuel cells: Role of anionic biosurfactants and mechanism – Yunshu Zhang – Bioelectrochemistry

Food microbiology
Influence of food consumption patterns and Galician lifestyle on human gut microbiota – María Castro-Penalonga – Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

Microbes in the news
Light-sensitive bacteria could save you during a heart attack – Jon Fingas – Engadget

Bacteria from hot springs solve mystery of metabolismBacteria from hot springs solve mystery of metabolism – Stockholm University – Science News

Common disease-causing bacteria can live airborne for 45 minutes, study shows – Queensland University of Technology – Science News

Meerkats Can Thank Bacteria for Their Signature Butt Scents – Elizabeth Preston – Discover

Microbes on the market
OptiBiotix Signs Major Supply Agreement For Its Microbiome Modulating Cholesterol-Reduction Probiotic – BioSpace

June 19, 2017

Events and jobs

QC Supervisor, Quality Control (Microbiology) – Bausch & Lomb Company Location Seal Beach, CA, US

Microbiology Lab Technician – Apex Life Sciences • Dublin Ohio, OH

General microbiome

Genome-Wide Search for Genes Required for Bifidobacterial Growth under Iron-Limitation – Lanigan N – Front Microbiol

Preprint: Phenotypic consequences of RNA polymerase dysregulation in Escherichia coli – Paramita Sarkar – bioRxiv

EsaB is a core component of the Staphylococcus aureus Type VII secretion system – M. Guillermina Casabona – bioRxiv

Multi-site human microbiome

Dysbiosis in chronic periodontitis: Key microbial players and interactions with the human host – Deng ZL – Sci Rep

Human gut microbiome

Torpor: The Rise and Fall of 3-Monoiodothyronamine from Brain to Gut-From Gut to Brain? – Glossmann HH – Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)

Bacterial Diversity of Intestinal Microbiota in Patients with Substance Use Disorders Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Deep Sequencing – Xu Y – Sci Rep

Gut Microbiome and Bone: to Build, Destroy, or Both? – Yan J – Curr Osteoporos Rep

From clinical uncertainties to precision medicine: the emerging role of the gut barrier and microbiome in small bowel functional diseases – Marlicz W – Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol

Gut microbiota composition strongly correlates to peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese men but not in women – Most J – Benef Microbes

Animal experiments

Bovine antibodies targeting primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile disease are a potent antibiotic alternative – Hutton ML – Sci Rep

Intestinal metabolites are profoundly altered in the context of HLA-B27 expression and functionally modulate disease in a rat model of spondyloarthropathy – Asquith M – Arthritis Rheumatol

Dietary advanced glycation end products modify gut microbial composition and partially increase colon permeability in rats – Qu W – Mol Nutr Food Res

The scales of the zebrafish: host–microbiota interactions from proteins to populations – Adam R Burns – Curr Opin Microbiol

Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Ecological diversity and co-occurrence patterns of bacterial community through soil profile in response to long-term switchgrass cultivation – He S – Sci Rep

Characterization of microbial communities in Chinese rice wine collected at Yichang city and Suzhou city in China – Lyu Y – J Microbiol Biotechnol

Diversity of endophytic mycobiota of tropical tree Tectona grandis Linn.f.: Spatiotemporal and tissue type effects – Singh DK – Sci Rep

Understanding and exploiting plant beneficial microbes – Finkel OM – Curr Opin Plant Biol

Water and extremophile microbiome

ELIXIR pilot action: Marine metagenomics – towards a domain specific set of sustainable services – Robertsen EM – F1000Res

Built environment

Graphene Nanolayers as a New Method for Bacterial Biofilm Prevention: Preliminary Results – Dybowska-Sarapuk Ł – J AOAC Int

Probiotics / prebiotics

Probiotic guidelines and physician practice: a cross-sectional survey and overview of the literature – Draper K – Benef Microbes


Toward a genetic tool development pipeline for host-associated bacteria – Matthew C Waller – Curr Opin Microbiol

Microbes in the news

Bacteria eaters’ set to transform pig treatment – Lauren Dean – FG|Insight

Bacteria Hysteria

Wash your phones, too – Daily Republic – Onome Johnson



June 18, 2017

Quite a large Digest for a Sunday, with most picks being on soil microbiome and some interesting animal papers including how microbial genetic composition may tune host longevity (Bing Han – Cell)

General microbiome

Reply to Wang and Chen: An ancient origin of magnetotactic bacteria – Wei Lin – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Microbiome and Longevity: Gut Microbes Send Signals to Host Mitochondria – Jan Gruber – Cell

Human gut microbiome

The Human Microbiome and the Missing Heritability Problem – Santiago Sandoval-Motta – Frontiers in Genetics

Bacteriophages important for FMT efficacy – Iain Dickson – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Postmortem succession of gut microbial communities in deceased human subjects – Jennifer M. DeBruyn – Peerj

Urinary metabolic insights into host-gut microbial interactions in healthy and IBD children – Francois-Pierre Martin – World Journal of Gastroenterology

Animal experiments

Profound perturbation induced by triclosan exposure in mouse gut microbiome: a less resilient microbial community with elevated antibiotic and metal resistomes – Bei Gao – BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology

Vitamin A deficiency in mice results in a hypermetabolic state, dysbiosis and alterations in bacterial metabolism – Yuan Tian – The Journal of Immunology

Host–microbiota interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans and their significance – Michael Shapira – Current Opinion in Microbiology

Microbial Genetic Composition Tunes Host Longevity – Bing Han – Cell

Probabilistic Invasion Underlies Natural Gut Microbiome Stability – Benjamin Obadia – Current Biology

Animal microbiome

Metagenomic survey of bacteria associated with the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) – Krzysztof Dudek – European Journal of Entomology

Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Microbial mechanisms controlling the rhizosphere effect of ryegrass on degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an aged-contaminated agricultural soil – Meixia Guo – Soil Biology and Biochemistry

Illumina-Based Analysis of Bulk and Rhizosphere Soil Bacterial Communities in Paddy Fields Under Mixed Heavy Metal Contamination – HE Huaidong  – Pedosphere

Paracoccus hibisci sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower) – Zheng-Fei Yan – International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology

The role of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria in improving nitrogen use efficiency for sustainable crop production: a focus on wheat – Nilde Antonella Di Benedetto – AIMS Microbiology Special Issue: Plant probiotic bacteria: solutions to feed the World

Molecular Communication and Nutrient Transfer of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria, and Host Plant in Tripartite Symbiosis – Chunling Chang – Legume Nitrogen Fixation in Soils with Low Phosphorus Availability

Experimental study on the effects of underground CO2 leakage on soil microbial consortia – Fu Chen – International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

The Impact of Hydration and Temperature on Bacterial Diversity in Arid Soil Mesocosms – Adam Št’ovíček – Frontiers in Microbiology

In vitro and in silico characterization of metagenomic soil-derived cellulases capable of hydrolyzing oil palm empty fruit bunch – Laura Marcela Palma Medina – Biotechnology Reports

The impacts of organic amendments: Do they confer stability against drought on the soil microbial community? – F. Bastida – Soil Biology and Biochemistry


Review: Harnessing Whole Genome Sequencing in Medical Mycology – Christina A Cuomo – Current Fungal Infection Reports

From complex gut communities to minimal microbiomes via cultivation – Thomas Clavel – Current Opinion in Microbiology

Microbes in the news

Microbiome ‘fingerprint’ shows donor microbes persist in fecal transplant recipients –R Kumar – Healio Gastroenterology

New Pasteurization Alternative Sanitizes Milk Without Killing Good Bacteria – Luke Dormehl – Digitaltrends

Gut Bacteria May Help Slow Down Process of Ageing – NDTV

Gut microbiota – Tiny helpers against Samonella – Innovations-report

June 17, 2017

Today: A few job searches, a lot of microbes in the news (as we all ponder our bread choices), and some articles about microbes in the wild.

Events and jobs

Assistant Professor-Microbiology (Tenure-Track) – The College of New Jersey

Microbiology Technician – Matchtech, England

Microbiology Analyst – Stericycle, Massachusetts

Animal microbiome

Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) – Springer et al, Ecology and Evolution

Water and extremophile microbiome

Undocumented Potential For Primary Productivity In A Globally-Distributed Bacterial Photoautotroph – Graham et al, bioRxiv (pre-print)

Microbes in the news

White or Whole Wheat Bread Study May Shed Light on Diet Failure – Patrick Keeffe, HealthLine

Gene transfer keeps bacteria fit – University of Basel, Phys.org

In dying, blood-starved heart, bacteria injections offer cellular life support – Beth Mole, Ars Technica

New antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria – Rutgers University, Science Daily

June 16, 2017

Gut microbiome focus: Differences in the gut microbiome between children and adults can mediate the metabolism of arsenic possibly leading to differences in exposure risk, the gut microbiome’s ability to protect against salmonella infection is dependent on the IFNy producing bacteria, the microbiome of insoluble fibre is characterized, and a new in vitro technique to interrogate intestinal transport of microbiota and antigens. Plus an overview of the world data centre for microorganisms, and MicroScope for microbial genome annotation. 

  • Events and jobs

Microbiology Technologist OR Microbiology Medical Technologist – Orlando Florida  


  • General microbiome

Conference: Current concepts in chronic inflammatory diseases: Interactions between microbes, cellular metabolism, and inflammation – Holger Garn – Allergy and Clinical Immunology

  • Human oral microbiome

Characterisation of Roseomonas mucosa isolated from the root canal of an infected tooth – Nina Diesendorf – BMC Research Notes

  • Human gut microbiome

* Interindividual variability of soil arsenic metabolism by human gut microbiota using SHIME model – Naiyi Yin – Chemosphere

* Inter-individual differences determine the outcome of wheat bran colonization by the human gut microbiome – Kim De Paepe – Environmental Microbiology

Review: Microbiota Therapy for Clostridium difficile and Antibiotic Resistant Enteric Infections – Brittany Lewis – Annual Review of Microbiology


  • Animal experiments

* Enhancement of IFNγ Production by Distinct Commensals Ameliorates Salmonella-Induced Disease – Sophie Thiemann – Cell Host and Microbe

Efficacy of antibiotic treatment of implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections with moxifloxacin, flucloxacillin, rifampin, and combination therapy: an animal study – Felix Greimel – Drug Design, Development and Therapy

The scales of the zebrafish: host–microbiota interactions from proteins to populations – Adam Burns – Current Opinion in Microbiology

IL-17 Receptor A Maintains and Protects the Skin Barrier To Prevent Allergic Skin Inflammation – Achilleas Floudas – The Journal of Immunology

Irf4-dependent CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and the intestinal microbiome regulate monocyte and macrophage activation and intestinal peristalsis in postoperative ileus – Judith-Mira Pohl – Gut

  • Animal microbiome

Effect of three lactobacilli with strain-specific activities on the growth performance, faecal microbiota and ileum mucosa proteomics of piglets – Yating Su – Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

  • Plant, root, and soil microbiome

Characterization of the regulation of a plant polysaccharide utilization operon and its role in biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis – Cameron Habib – PLOSone

Grazing of leaf-associated Cercomonads (Protists: Rhizaria: Cercozoa) structures bacterial community composition and function – Sebastian Flues – Environmental Microbiology

Green alder (Alnus viridis) encroachment shapes microbial communities in subalpine soils and impacts its bacterial or fungal symbionts differently – G Schwob – Environmental Microbiology

The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes – Hongmiao Wu – Scientific Reports

Specificity traits consistent with legume-rhizobia coevolution displayed by Ensifer meliloti rhizosphere colonization – María Eugenia Salas – Environmental Microbiology

  • Water and extremophile microbiome

Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean – SJ Goldberg – Environmental Microbiology

Functional diversity and redundancy across fish gut, sediment, and water bacterial communities – Arthur Escalas – Environmental Microbiology


  • Phages and viruses

Preprint: Bacteria defend against phages through type IV pilus glycosylation – Hanjeong Harvey- bioRxiv

  • Techniques

Dissecting the human microbiome with single-cell genomics – Andrew Tolonen – Genome Medicine

* A human intestinal M-cell-like model for investigating particle, antigen and microorganism translocation – Ana Beloqui – Nature Protocols

  • Metagenomics

* World data centre for microorganisms: an information infrastructure to explore and utilize preserved microbial strains worldwide – Linhuan Wu – Nucleic Acids Research

* MicroScope in 2017: an expanding and evolving integrated resource for community expertise of microbial genomes – David Vallenet – Nucleic Acids Research

Bacteriocin Gene-Trait matching across the complete Lactobacillus Pan-genome – Fergus Collins – Scientific Reports

Screening and characterization of a novel thermostable lipase with detergent-additive potential from the metagenomic library of a mangrove soil – Leli Tang – Gene

  • Microbial Physiology

Preprint: Phenotypic consequences of RNA polymerase dysregulation in Escherichia coli – Paramita Sarkar – bioRxiv

Preprint: Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome changes during loss of culturability in water – Christina Bronowski – bioRxiv


  • Microbes in the news

You Are What You Eat, And What You Eat Is Millions of MicrobesKyle Frischkorn – Smithsonian.com

John Bartlett’s Take on Critical Infectious Disease Topics: Part 3 – John Bartlett – Medscape

Placental Microbiome – Sally Robertson – Life Sciences News

Light-activated bacteria protect rats from heart attacks – Michael Price – Science

These light-eating bacteria could one day help us survive heart attacks – Alessandra Potenza – The Verge

Scientists image molecular machinery never before seen in bacteria – Brooke Hays – UPI