Human microbiome, June 11

Bacterial community classes in HMP subjects, oral health in postmenopausal women, and gut epithelial regeneration.

Human microbiome – general

Yanjiao Zhou ExplorationExploration of bacterial community classes in major human habitats – Yanjiao Zhou – Genome Biology

“Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project.” “We identified 2 to 6 community classes for each of the 18 habitats from the HMP healthy cohort by clustering augmented by manual inspection.”

ExploringExploring New Horizons in Microbiome Research – Christoph A. Thaiss, Eran Elinav – Cell Host & Microbe

“Leading scientists in microbiome research met at Lake Titisee, Germany, in April 2014 to discuss the current state of the field, the most urgent and unresolved questions, state-of-the-art technological advances, and new avenues of future research. “

Oral microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 9.35.26 PMPorphyromonas gingivalis Manipulates Complement and TLR Signaling to Uncouple Bacterial Clearance from Inflammation and Promote Dysbiosis – Tomoki Maekawa – Cell Host & Microbe

“As previously reported, P. gingivalis remodels the oral microbiota into a dysbiotic state by exploiting complement. Now we show that in neutrophils P. gingivalis disarms a host-protective TLR2-MyD88 pathway via proteasomal degradation of MyD88, whereas it activates an alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway. “

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.08.26 PMUB receives $4 million NIH grant to study oral health in postmenopausal women – Pat Donovan – University at Buffalo

“These techniques involve Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using culture-independent techniques to identify 16S rRNA genes and allow for a more complete and detailed characterization of the microbial composition and diversity of the human oral cavity, Wactawski-Wende says.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.09.30 PMPregnant Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Preterm Birth – Kimberly Ann Yonkers – JAMA Psychiatry

“Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of 2654 women who were recruited before 17 completed weeks of pregnancy from 137 obstetrical practices in Connecticut and Western Massachusetts.”

Animal models of human microbiota

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.07.04 PMThe Cytosolic Bacterial Peptidoglycan Sensor Nod2 Affords Stem Cell Protection and Links Microbes to Gut Epithelial Regeneration – Giulia Nigro – Cell Host & Microbe

“We used in vitro cultured organoids of intestinal crypts from mice, reinforced with in vivo experiments, to examine the crypt-microbiota interface.”

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