Microbiome digest, October 30, 2014

Bacteriocins in human metagenomic libraries, freezing/thawing effects on community composition, microbiome of preterm neonates, and bacteria in soil.
Multiple-site human microbiome

Diversity and dynamics of bacteriocins from human microbiome – Jinshui Zheng – Environmental Microbiology

“We employed bioinformatic analyses to identify putative bacteriocin sequences in metagenomic sequences obtained from different human body sites. “

Human respiratory microbiome

* Implications of multiple freeze-thawing on respiratory samples for culture-independent analyses – Leah Cuthbertson – Journal of Cystic Fibrosis

“Following each cycle, an aliquot was removed and treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) prior to DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.”

Human gut microbiome

Immune Homeostasis, Dysbiosis and Therapeutic Modulation of the Gut Microbiota – Christine T. Peterson – Clinical & Experimental Immunology

“This review discusses host-microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation, and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead.”

Microbiome of pregnancy and birth

* Intestinal Microbiota Development in Preterm Neonates and Effect of Perinatal Antibiotics – Silvia Arboleya – The Journal of Pediatrics

“We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence-based microbiota analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the establishment of the intestinal microbiota. “

Animal microbiome

Hidden Population Structure and Cross-species Transmission of Whipworms (Trichuris sp.) in Humans and Non-human Primates in Uganda – Ria R. Ghai – PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

“We examined the phylogenetic structure of whipworms in a multi-species community of non-human primates and humans in Western Uganda, using both traditional microscopy and molecular methods.”

Soil microbiome

Metagenomic analysis reveals microbial functional redundancies and specificities in a soil under different tillage and crop-management regimes – Renata Carolini Souza – Applied Soil Ecology

“in this study we used a shotgun metagenomic approach to compare different soil…, and crop … managements in a 13-year-old field experiment in southern Brazil. “

Evaluating T-RFLP protocols to sensitively analyze the genetic diversity and community changes of soil alkane degrading bacteria – Julia Giebler – European Journal of Soil Biology

“This study aimed at identifying a reliable, highly resolving fingerprinting method to monitor alkane degrading communities in soil.”

Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms – Simonetta Bagella – Comptes Rendus Biologies

“Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops.”

Food microbiology

Characterization and use of microbial communities in Doenjang to control the unpleasant odor of Ginkgo epicarp – Sunhyun Park – Food Science and Biotechnology

“Microbes in doenjang were probably responsible for the reduction in the butyric acid content. Microbial communities were analyzed during fermentation.”

Bioreactor microbiology

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances – M.C. Gagliano – Water Research

“16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. “

Bioinformatics

Fast dendrogram-based OTU clustering using sequence embedding – Thuy-Diem Nguyen – Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics

“In this paper, we introduce a new hierarchical clustering method called CRiSPy-Embed which aims to produce high-quality clustering results at a low computational cost. “

Focus: a new multilayer graph model for short read analysis and extraction of biologically relevant features – Julia Warnke – Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics

“We present Focus, a new multilayer graph model for short read analysis and extraction of biologically relevant features. “

The UniFrac significance test generates different outputs given semantically equivalent inputs – Jeffrey Long – Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics

“We identify a discrepancy in the UniFrac methodology that causes semantically equivalent inputs to produce different outputs in tests of statistical significance.”

Microbes in the news

SpaceX 4 splashes down, returns bacteria samples to Earth – Josh Barrett – WaayTV

“HudsonAlpha’s Genomic Sciences Lab will be sequencing the genomes of E. coli bacteria that were aboard the ISS. For some reason, bacteria are not as susceptible to antibiotics in space.”

Bik’s Picks

Why Millennials &%#@! Love Science – Alexandra Ossola – The Atlantic

“Today’s young adults see new discoveries both as a source of awe and a means for innovation.”

1,000 Flavors of Banana: the New Science of Food Additives – Annie Gasparro – The Wall Street Journal

“Rather than sourcing the jalapeño or poblano pepper, you can create it with a flavor house, and just apply it over a corn chip,” said Jared Simon, marketing director for Hain Celestial Group Inc. ’s snacks and bakery division, which uses natural flavors for its foods such as Terra vegetable chips.”

Spooky Science: The Sounds of Halloween – Science Buddies – Scientific American

“In this science activity, you will investigate what goes into the composition of a perfect creepy soundtrack. “

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Microbiome Digest, October 20, 2014

Oral core microbiome, symbionts in crabs, sponges, and Drosophila, metabolites in dolphin’s breath, and retraction of a paper favored by Dr. Oz.

Pregnancy and birth

NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes – Sathyaprasad C Burjonrappa, Brian Shea, Diya Goorah – Journal of Neonatal Surgery

“There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event.”

Human oral microbiome

Intraindividual variation in core microbiota in peri-implantitis and periodontitis – Noriko Maruyama – Scientific Reports

“To improve our knowledge of the different communities of complex oral microbiota, we compared the microbial features between peri-implantitis and periodontitis in 20 patients with both diseases. “

Antimicrobial Effect of Lemongrass Oil against Oral Malodor Microorganisms and the Pilot Study of Safety and Efficacy of Lemongrass Mouthrinse on Oral Malodor – Panitta Satthanakul – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Antimicrobial activity of LG mouthrinse was examined against common odorigenic microorganisms using broth microdilution assay and the disc diffusion method. A randomized double-blind clinical study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers.”

Animal microbiome

Molecular evidence of digestion and absorption of epibiotic bacterial community by deep-sea crab Shinkaia crosnieri – Tomo-o Watsuji – ISME Journal

“A phylogenetic analysis showed that many of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained from the intestine were closely related to the sequences of the epibionts, thus they were probably derived from the epibionts.”

* In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors – Peter D. Newell – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. “

* Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella – Marie L. Cuvelier – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing.”

* Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality – Fan Zhang – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. “

Plant microbiome

Reduced dependence of rhizosphere microbiome on plant-derived carbon in 32-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilized soils – Chao Ai – Soil Biology and Biochemistry

“Wheat rhizosphere microbiome was studied by stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing.”

Environmental microbiome

Characterization of bacterial communities associated with seasonal water masses from Tongyoung in South Sea of Korea – Sung-Suk Suh – Ocean Science Journal

“In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with two different water masses from Tongyoung in the South Sea of Korea. “

Bacterial community structure of a lab-scale anammox membrane bioreactor – Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez – Biotechnology Progress

“In this study, next-generation sequencing techniques have been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of this MBR Anammox for the first time ever. “

Metagenomics & Bioinformatics

GenomePeek: What exactly is that sequencing data? – Katelyn McNair – MicroBEnet

“I wrote the initial version of GenomePeek, and tested it with various data sets using this student’s data. I quickly found that some genes work better than others, and so currently the four genes analyzed are: 16S, recA, rpoB, and groEL.”

Metabolomics

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath – Alexander A. Aksenov – Analytical Chemistry

“We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). “

Proteomics

Symbiosis, Dysbiosis and Rebiosis – the value of metaproteomics in human microbiome monitoring – Lei Mao and Jacqueline Franke – Proteomics

“After a brief review of the history and state-of-the-art of metaproteomics in the field of environmental health research, focus of this perspective article will be put on the role of cross-species joint efforts in symbiosis, dysbiosis and rebiosis of the human gut during human development, pathogenesis and aging.”

More microbiology

Bridging the gap between viable but non-culturable and antibiotic persistent bacteria – Mesrop Ayrapetyan – Trends in Microbiology

“This discussion is intended to stimulate discourse about these seemingly different but very similar dormant states.”

* Phylogenomic Reconstruction Indicates Mitochondrial Ancestor Was an Energy Parasite
Zhang Wang, Martin Wu – PLOS ONE

“Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria.”

Real-time video imaging as a new and rapid tool for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method: a paradigm for evaluating resistance to imipenem and identifying extended-spectrum β-lactamases – Stéphanie Le Page – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

“..we present here for the first time video movies of the appearance of the diameter of inhibition by the disk diffusion in real-time. “

Microbes in the news

Can Microbes Help Feed the World? – Amy Mayer – BioScience

“To help meet the challenge for food, scientists are using new technologies to better understand the role that soil microbes might play in bolstering agricultural production. “

Dentists Want To See Studies On Pot-Cavity Link – CBS Local

“Patients are experiencing tooth decay, expensive dentist bills and the pain of dealing with it all. The biggest side effect is dry mouth.”

Bik’s Picks

Brain surgery, by robot, through the cheek – Science Daily

“Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the engineers have designed the system so that much of it can be made using 3-D printing in order to keep the price low.”

* Hilarious cartoons on Imgur: Real Scientists vs. Movie Scientists 

* Authors retract green coffee bean diet paper touted by Dr. Oz – Ivan Oransky – Retraction Watch

“Two authors of a 2012 paper sponsored by a company that made grand claims about green coffee bean extract’s abilities to help people lose weight have retracted it. The study was cited by The Dr. Oz Show, and last month it cost the company a $3.5 million settlement with the Feds.”

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Microbiome digest, October 13, 2014

Preterm infant gut microbiome, fecal transplants, microbes in space, and microbiome of 8 different fish species.

Pregnancy and birth

* Development of the preterm infant gut microbiome: a research priority – Maureen W Groer (Jack Gilbert lab) – Microbiome

“This review provides a synthesis of our understanding of the normal development of the infant gut microbiome and contrasts this with dysbiotic development in the VLBW infant.”

Fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of microorganisms in acute chorioamnionitis – D. Schmiedel – Clinical Microbiology and Infection

“Using a diagnostic fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel, we visualized Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mitis group in two cases of acute chorioamnionitis. “

The Role of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes – Amy P. Murtha – Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America

* Impact Of Lifestyle On The Gut Microbiota Of Healthy Infants And Their Mothers – The Aladdin Birth Cohort – Helena Marell Hesla – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Samples collected from infants at ages six days, three weeks, two months and six months and from their mothers before and after delivery, respectively, were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing.”

Human gut microbiome

* Oral, Capsulized, Frozen Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Relapsing Clostridium difficile Infection – Ilan Youngster – JAMA

“Self-ranked health scores improved significantly on a scale of 1 to 10 from a median of 5  for overall health and 4.5  for gastrointestinal-specific health on the day prior to FMT to 8 after FMT administration for both overall and gastrointestinal health (P = .001).”

* Impact of Experimental Hookworm Infection on the Human Gut Microbiota – Cinzia Cantacessi – Journal of Infectious Diseases

“We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. “

Genomics of schizophrenia: time to consider the gut microbiome? – T G Dinan – Molecular Psychiatry

“To date, this vast quantity of DNA has been largely ignored in schizophrenia research.”

Animal microbiome

Comparative study on gastrointestinal microbiota of eight fish species with different feeding habits – Jinjin Li – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The V1 to V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene were analyzed by highthroughput sequencing (454 platform) to compare the gut microbiota of different fish species. “

Dining local: the microbial diet of a snail that grazes microbial communities is geographically structured – Richard O’Rorke – Environmental Microbiology

“we collected 102 snail fecal samples as a proxy for diet, and 102 matched-leaf samples from four locations. We used Illumina amplicon sequencing to determine bacterial and fungal community composition. “

Bacterial associates of seed-parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Megastigmus) – Amber R Paulson – BMC Microbiology

“We characterized the bacterial symbionts of Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), a lineage of seed-parasitic chalcid wasps, with the goal of identifying microbes that might play an important role in aiding development within seeds, including supplementing insect nutrition or manipulating host trees.“

Bioreactor microbiome

Biofouling and Microbial Communities in Membrane Distillation and Reverse Osmosis – Katherine R. Zodrow – Environmental Science & Technology

“Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. “

Integrated ‘omics analysis for studying the microbial community response to a pH perturbation of a cellulose-degrading bioreactor culture – Amy A Boaro – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“16S rDNA pyrosequencing results revealed increased alpha diversity in the microbial community after the perturbation, and a persistence of the dominant community members over the duration of the experiment.”

Environmental microbiome

Effects of Bioavailable Heavy Metal Species, Arsenic, and Acid Drainage from Mine Tailings on a Microbial Community Sampled Along a Pollution Gradient in a Freshwater Ecosystem – Togwell A. Jackson – Geomicrobiology Journal

“Ribosomal ribonucleic acid, fatty acid, and phospholipid analyses, along with assays of CO2 production, denitrification, and enzyme activities, were performed to characterise the microflora; and environmental conditions were defined by various physicochemical analyses, including determination of bioavailable metal species. “

The role of macrobiota in structuring microbial communities along rocky shores – Catherine A Pfister​, Jack A Gilbert, Sean M Gibbons – PeerJ

“At two coastal locations in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we show that microbial composition was significantly different between inert surfaces, the biogenic surfaces that included rocky shore animals and an alga, and the water column plankton.”

Microbes in (simulated) space

The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1 – Yi Sun – 40th COSPAR Scientific Assembly

“In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment.”

The viability of native microbial communities in martian environment (model) – Vorobyova, Elena – 40th COSPAR Scientific Assembly

“It was shown that in simulated conditions close to the parameters of the Martian regolith, the diversity of natural bacterial communities was not decreased, and in some cases the activation of some bacterial populations occurred in situ.”

Food microbiology

Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine – Joanita Sulaiman – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Whole genome shotgun (WGS) method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida.”

Transcriptomics/metagenomics

Adaptation to environmental factors shapes the organization of regulatory regions in microbial communities – Leyden Fernandez – BMC Genomics

“We have here characterized and analyzed the metaregulome of three different environments, as well as their impact in the adaptation to particular variable physico-chemical conditions. “

Other microbiology

Inverse Correlation Between Helicobacter pylori Colonization and Obesity in a Cohort of Inner City Children – Hanh D. Vo – Helicobacter

“Our findings in a North American cohort are in agreement with studies from Asia and Europe suggesting that H. pylori infection decreases the prevalence of obesity in children.”

Microbes in the news

* Podcast: Your Home, Your Bacteria – Science Friday

“Jack Gilbert… is trying to develop a better understanding of the way people, bacteria, and the environment around them interact, from the kitchen floor to the greater Chicago area.”

Landmark Crohn’s Microbiome Study Yields Important Findings – David Wild – GastroEndoNews

“The association suggests that there is a potential link between the presence of these microbes and the serologic biomarkers, but that needs to be determined in future studies,” said Dr. Xavier, who presented the study at Digestive Disease Week 2014”

Is that how the capsules will look like? Good news: You can take your fecal transplants orally – Rachel Feltman – Washington Post

“In a study published Saturday in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers report that the same success rate can be reached by processing the healthy excrement into capsules and administering the pills by mouth.“

Probiotics on the brain: A growing number of scientists now believe that gut bacteria can influence mental health – Elizabeth Gehrman – Boston Globe

“Whenever someone says there’s an impossibility in medicine,” says Williams, “they end up being corrected in a few years.”

Unravelling the link between gut bacteria and horse health – University of Surrey

“Researchers at the University of Surrey, in collaboration with colleagues from Reading and Liverpool universities, have been awarded £100,000 funding by Petplan Charitable Trust… to create a laboratory model of the horse’s hindgut.”

The Second Brain: Gut Bacteria Control Human Behavior to Get the Best Nutrients – David Gutierrez – Epoch Times

“Bacteria within the gut are manipulative,” researcher Carlo Maley, PhD, said. “There is a diversity of interests represented in the microbiome, some aligned with our own dietary goals, and others not.”

Science, publishing, career

Sometimes My Job Seems Like a Secret – Amy Davidson – Speaking Of Research

“You are going to hell.” “You are a horrible person.” “We cannot be friends anymore.”

Sell yourself: Adding substance to your personal statement – Brian Rybarczyk – Science Careers at Science Magazine

“Obtaining feedback on your personal statement (or any piece of writing) can be intimidating, but feedback is essential for creating a polished and readable document.”

Bik’s Picks

Why Orange Juice Tastes Disgusting After You Brush Your Teeth: Finally, an answer – Sarah Fecht – Popular Science

“In a handy video, the American Chemical Society has explained why orange juice (and food in general) tastes like soap after you brush your teeth. “

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Non-human microbiome, August 26, 2014

Microbiomes of rabbits, exercising mice, fish, bees, beetles, forest soil after a hurricane (a simulated one!), water, and – why not – the whole world.

Mammal microbiome 

* Changes in Cecal Microbiota and Mucosal Gene Expression Revealed New Aspects of Epizootic Rabbit Enteropathy – Christine Bäuerl – PLOS ONE

“Cecal microbiota was characterized in three rabbit groups (ERE-affected, healthy and healthy pretreated with antibiotics), followed by transcriptional analysis of cytokines and mucins in the cecal mucosa and vermix by q-rtPCR.”

Effect of Intestinal Microbiota on Exercise Performance in Mice – Hsu, Yi-Ju – Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research

“We investigated the association of intestinal bacteria and exercise performance in specific pathogen-free (SPF), germ-free (GF), and Bacteroides fragilis (BF) gnotobiotic mice.”

Fish microbiome

Non invasive analysis of metabolic changes following nutrient input into diverse fish species, as investigated by metabolic and microbial profiling approaches – Taiga Asakura – PeerJPrePrints

“We evaluated the microbial diversity in various fish species collected from Japan’s coastal waters using next-generation sequencing, followed by evaluation of the effects of feed type on co-metabolic modulations in fish-microbial symbiotic ecosystems in laboratory-scale experiments.”

Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Different Species of Carp by Pyrosequencing – Tongtong Li – Microbial Ecology

“In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. “

Insect microbiome

* Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species – Sara D. Leonhardt – PLOS ONE

“Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). “

Metamicrobiomics in herbivore beetles of the genus Cryptocephalus (Chrysomelidae): toward the understanding of ecological determinants in insect symbiosis – Matteo Montagna – Insect Science

“The microbiota of C. acquitanus and C. marginellus (Calanques) were the most diverse (over 100 OTUs), while that from C. zoiai yielded less bacterial diversity (45 OTUs).”

Invertebrate microbiome

Antioxidant Activity of Bacteria Associated with the Marine Sponge Tedania anhelans – Dhivya Balakrishnan – Indian Journal of Microbiology

In the present study, several Bacillus sp. with just 97 % similarity with its closest match in Gen Bank were isolated, and found to show free radical scavenging activity”

Soil and sediment microbiome

Effects of a simulated hurricane disturbance on forest floor microbial communities – Sharon A. Cantrell – Forest Ecology and Management

“We studied the independent and interactive hurricane effects of canopy openness and debris deposition on the relative abundance and diversity of microorganisms in soil and leaf litter using ester link fatty acids methyl esters (EL-FAME) analysis, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) profile.”

Spatiotemporal changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities under different nitrogen inputs over a 5-year period in intensive agricultural ecosystems on the North China Plain – Wei Liu – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone sequencing were used to analyse the AMF community. “

A Long-Term Cultivation of an Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Microbial Community from Deep-Sea Methane-Seep Sediment Using a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor – Masataka Aoki – PLOS ONE

“Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that phylogenetically diverse Archaea and Bacteria grew in the bioreactor.”

Water microbiome

Characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant Microbial Communities and the Effects of Carbon Sources on Diversity in Laboratory Models – Sangwon Lee – PLOS ONE

“…using PhyloChip 16S-rRNA-gene targeting microarrays, we compared the compositions of sampled communities to those of inocula propagated in the laboratory in simulated wastewater conditionally amended with various carbon sources”

* Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa) – Rosine E. Tiodjio – Nature Scientific Reports

“Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. “

Comparative survey of bacterial and archaeal communities in high arsenic shallow aquifers using 454 pyrosequencing and traditional methods – Ping Li – Ecotoxicology

“A survey of bacterial and archaeal community structure was carried out in 10 shallow tube wells in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia by 16S rRNA gene based two-step nested PCR-DGGE, clone libraries and 454 pyrosequencing. “

* Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs – Brendan Headd – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. “

The whole world microbiome

* The Earth Microbiome project: successes and aspirations – Jack A Gilbert, Janet K Jansson, and Rob Knight – BMC Biology

“ ‘Knight and Gilbert literally talk about sampling the entire planet. It is ludicrous and not feasible – yet they are doing it’”

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Human and bioreactor microbiome, July 18

An upcoming radio show on the human microbiome that looks interesting, dental calculus from prehistoric skeletons (without bacterial analysis unfortunately), and animals models of microbiome research.

General microbiome

City Visions: Exploring the Human Microbiome – KALW public radio – Monday July 21 at 7 pm at 91.7 FM in San Francisco

“Join host David Onek as we explore these questions and more with Bay Area researchers who are leading the new field of microbiome exploration and discovery.”

Oral microbiome

Dental Calculus Reveals Unique Insights into Food Items, Cooking and Plant Processing in Prehistoric Central Sudan – Stephen Buckley – PLOS ONE

“Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. “

Animal models of gut microbiota and disease

Gut Microbial Metabolism Drives Transformation of Msh2-Deficient Colon Epithelial Cells – Antoaneta Belcheva – Cell

“We report that altering the microbiota composition reduces CRC in APCMin/+MSH2−/− mice, and that a diet reduced in carbohydrates phenocopies this effect. “

Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota – Jeffrey D Galley – BMC Microbiology

“..we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice.”

Bioreactor microbiome

Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE)-degrading microbial communities in enrichments from polluted environments – Yoann Le Digabel – Journal of Hazardous Materials

“Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were prepared from each enrichment. The analyses of the DNA sequences obtained showed different taxonomic compositions with a majority of Proteobacteria in three cases.”

Microbial community structure of wastewater treatment subjected to high mortality rate due to ozonation of return activated sludge – S. Isazadeh – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The bacterial community structures were investigated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The structures remained highly similar throughout the experiment despite the ozone treatment.”

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Non-human microbiome, June 23

What happens with all that triclosan we flush down the drain? Also, baby squirrels, tse-tse flies, pot, and Chinese liquor.

Animal microbiome general 

Two very different papers from the same group, but both are finding that Blautia species are host specific.

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.57.57 PM

A single genus in the gut microbiome reflects host preference and specificity – A Murat Eren – The ISME Journal

“In our dataset of 57 M sequence reads of the V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in samples collected from seven host species, we identified 200 high-resolution taxonomic units within Blautia using oligotyping.” (Humans, cows, swine, deer, chickens)

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.26.18 PMBlautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters – Amber M. Koskey – Environmental Microbiology Reports

“We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were specific to or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse, and cow sources.”

Squirrel microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.35.26 PMTemporal Dynamics of the Cecal Gut Microbiota of Juvenile Arctic Ground Squirrels: a Strong Litter Effect across the First Active Season – Timothy J. Stevenson – Applied and Environmental Microbiology  (image courtesy of ego-alterego.com)

“We characterized trends in diversity (454 pyrosequencing), density (flow cytometry), viability (flow cytometry), and metabolism (short-chain fatty acid analysis) of the gut microbial community of juvenile arctic ground squirrels across their first active season at weaning and at 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks postweaning.”

Insect microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.20.33 PMAnalysis of Multiple Tsetse Fly Populations in Uganda Reveals Limited Diversity and Species-Specific Gut Microbiota – Emre Aksoy – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“We used multiple approaches, including deep sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and bacterium-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR), to investigate the levels and patterns of gut microbial diversity from a total of 151 individuals.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.22.49 PMMicrobial Population Dynamics in the Hemolymph of Manduca sexta Infected with Xenorhabdus nematophila and the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae – Swati Singh – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“We show that gut microbes translocate into the hemolymph when the nematode penetrates the insect intestine.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.23.22 PMPurine Biosynthesis, Biofilm Formation, and Persistence of an Insect-Microbe Gut Symbiosis – Jiyeun Kate Kim – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“When we disrupted purN and purT in the Burkholderia symbiont, the ΔpurN and ΔpurT mutants grew normally, and only the ΔpurT mutant failed to form biofilms. “

Plant microbiome

Plant metabolomics for plant chemical responses to belowground community change by climate change – Sangkyu Park – Journal of Plant Biology

“In this review, we will first summarize recent progress in plant metabolomics methodology and subsequently review recent studies of interactions between plants and soil organisms in relation to climate change issues.”

Bioreactor and sewage microbiology

TriclosanThe Impacts of Triclosan on Anaerobic Community Structures, Function, and Antimicrobial Resistance – Patrick J McNamara – Environmental Science & Technology

“Triclosan amendment caused all of the Bacteria and Archaea communities to structurally diverge from that of the control cultures (based on ARISA).”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.24.07 PMShifts in the Microbial Community, Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers in the Biofilm in a Full-scale Rotating Biological Contactor – Xingxing Peng – Environmental Science & Technology

“The objective of this study was to investigate the Microbial community shifts of bacteria, especially nitrifiers and denitrifiers, in the biofilm of two rotating biological contactor (RBC) trains with different running times along the plug flowpath”

Soil microbiology

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.32.29 PMIdentifying qualitative effects of different grazing types on below-ground communities and function in a long-term field experiment – Catriona A Macdonald – Environmental Microbiology

“All functional community measures (functions, biogeochemical cycling genes, network association between different taxa) were more strongly affected by invertebrate grazers than rabbits.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.25.34 PMExtensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi – Robert Riley – PNAS

“To test the adequacy of the white/brown-rot categories, we analyzed 33 fungal genomes. Some species lack PODs, and thus resemble brown-rot fungi, but possess the cellulose-degrading apparatus typical of white-rot fungi. “

Food and other consumables microbiology

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.33.28 PMIf the pot doesn’t worry you, the bacteria might: Food safety a new frontier for legal pot – Kristen Wyatt – The Republic

“In Washington state, where retail sales are expected to begin the week of July 7, regulations call for samples of all marijuana sold for consumption to clear a “microbiological screening,” whether it’s in edible, smokeable or concentrate form.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.34.50 PMStarter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation – Qun Wu – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor.”

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Non-human microbiome, June 17

You waited for it: the Cannabis microbiome! But also microbiotas of salmon, a quail, coral, sponges, water, and ice.

Bird microbiome

Cultivable Bacterial Microbiota of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): A New Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistance? – Hongwen Su – PLOS ONE

“Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations.”

Fish microbiome

Pyrosequencing-based characterization of gastrointestinal bacteria of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) within a commercial mariculture system – K.Z. Zarkasi – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Salmon GI tract bacterial communities commercially farmed in south-eastern Tasmania were analysed, over a 13-month period across a standard commercial production farm cycle, using 454 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing. “

Coral and sponge microbiome

Community Shifts in the Surface Microbiomes of the Coral Porites astreoides with Unusual Lesions – Julie L. Meyer – PLOS ONE

“The presence of lesions in P. astreoides coincided with a decrease in the relative abundance of Endozoicomonas, rather than the appearance of specific pathogenic taxa.”

Bacterial suspects identified in Caribbean coral deaths – NewScientist

“Three bacteria seem to be responsible for a disease that has killed most of the Caribbean’s reef-building corals.”

Effects of salinity on antibiotic production in sponge-derived Salinispora actinobacteria – Y.K. Ng – Journal of Applied Microbiology

Fingerprint data were generated from extracts of S. arenicola broth cultures grown in media of varying salt (NaCl) concentrations.”

Plants microbiome

Understanding Cultivar-Specificity and Soil Determinants of the Cannabis Microbiome – Max E. Winston – PLOS ONE

“Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacterial communities of the endorhiza showed significant cultivar-specificity.”

The Role of Abiotic Environmental Conditions and Herbivory in Shaping Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar – Michal Samuni-Blank – PLOS ONE

“ We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient.”

Microbial community structure during fluoranthene degradation in the presence of plants – S. Storey – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Bacterial and fungal community composition in the rhizosphere was significantly different from that in nonrhizospheric and unplanted samples.”

Soil microbiome

Omics-based interpretation of synergism in a soil-derived cellulose-degrading microbial community – Yizhuang Zhou – Scientific Reports

“Analyses of reconstructed bacterial draft genomes from all seven uncultured phylotypes in F1RT indicate that its constituent microbes cooperate in both cellulose-degrading and other important metabolic processes.”

Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas – Belén Carbonetto – PLOS ONE

“The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas.”

 

Dust microbiome

Richness and Diversity in Dust Stormborne Biomes at the Southeast Mediterranean – Itzhak Katra – Scientific Reports

“In addition to the physico-chemical compositions, organismal diversities of dust from two storm events in southern Israel, December 2012 (Ev12) and January 2013 (Ev13), were determined by pyro-sequencing using primers universal to 16S and 18S rRNA genes and compared.”

Bioreactors

The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination – Yang Mu – Scientific Reports

“ Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures.”

Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry – S.O. Petersen – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques or untreated, was stored for 83 days in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by T-RFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA.”

Water and ice

The Characterization of RNA Viruses in Tropical Seawater Using Targeted PCR and Metagenomics – Alexander I. Culley – mBio

“In this study, we investigated the diversity of the RNA virus assemblages in tropical coastal seawater samples using targeted PCR and metagenomics.”

Variations of algal communities cause darkening of a Greenland glacier – Stefanie Lutz – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We have assessed the microbial ecology on the surface of Mittivakkat glacier in SE-Greenland during the exceptional high melting season in July 2012 when the so far most extreme melting rate for the Greenland Ice Sheet has been recorded.”

Pyrosequencing reveals correlations between extremely acidophilic bacterial communities with hydrogen sulphide concentrations, pH and inert polymer coatings at concrete sewer crown surfaces – E. Pagaling – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Pyrosequencing and cloning showed that Mycobacterium and Acidithiobacillus dominated the acidophilic microbial communities. Methylacidiphilum was also dominant in samples where methane was detected.”

Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration – I. Douterelo – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). “

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