Human microbiome digest, August 19, 2014

Lots of oral and gut microbiome papers today – Alzheimer’s, probiotics, chemotherapy and radiation.

Oral microbiome

Review: The Microbiome and Disease: Reviewing the Links between the Oral Microbiome, Aging, and Alzheimer’s Disease – Deborah K. Shoemark – Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

“Evidence linking oral bacteria to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is discussed in the context of aging, drawing together data from epidemiological, experimental, genetic, and environmental studies. “

* Human oral viruses are personal, persistent and gender-consistent – Shira R Abeles – ISME Journal

“To improve our understanding of the DNA viruses that inhabit the human oral cavity, we examined saliva from a cohort of eight unrelated subjects over a 60-day period. “

* Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota – Shi Huang – ISME Journal

“In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched.”

Phylogenetic and functional gene structure shifts of the oral microbiomes in periodontitis patients – Yan Li – ISME Journal

“Here, we examined the phylogenetic and functional gene differences between periodontal and healthy individuals using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a specific functional gene array”

Perspective: Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench – Patricia I. Diaz – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression.”

Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults – Mercedes Fernandez y Mostajo – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.”

* Review: Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome
Jeffrey S. McLean – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them.”

Gut microbiome

* Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes – Meiling Zhang – PNAS USA

“Here we demonstrate that two human gut commensal Bacteroides are equipped with unique enzymes that allow degradation of xylan, a common hemicellulose in human diets.”

Evaluation of bifidobacterial community composition in the human gut by means of a targeted amplicon sequencing (ITS) protocol – Christian Milani – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Here, we define the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of all currently known Bifidobacterium taxa, providing a Bifidobacterium-specific primer pair that targets a hyper-variable region within the ITS suitable for precise taxonomic identification of all 48 so far recognized members of the Bifidobacterium genus.”

* Multi-omics analysis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – Hu Huang – Immunology Letters

“There is strong evidence of interactions between host genotype, environment, and gut microbiome profile in IBD.”

The methylome of the gut microbiome: disparate Dam methylation patterns in intestinal Bacteroides dorei – Michael T. Leonard – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Here metagenomic sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences platform allowed for rapid identification of bacterial GATC methylation status of a bacterial species in human stool samples. “

Perspective: Imposition of encapsulated non-indigenous probiotics into intestine may disturb human core microbiome – Abolfazl Barzegari – Frontiers in Microbiology

“..we envision that multi-probiotic therapy and holistic personalized microbiome supplements may be scientifically justified and valued in individualized probiotic designs and even targeted therapy of life-threatening diseases such as cancers in the future. “

Editorial: gut microbiota and chemotherapy- or radiation-induced gastrointestinal mucositis – M. R. Ferreira and H. J. N. Andreyev – Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

“Studies in those undergoing cancer therapy will lead to a new era in the treatment and prevention of the currently dreadful GI toxicity suffered by so many patients, and what we learn will almost certainly bring important insights to many other GI disorders.”

Respiratory microbiome

Cell-associated bacteria in the human lung microbiome – Robert P Dickson – Microbiome

“We present a novel methodological and analytical approach to the localization of lung microbiota and show that the prominent members of the lung microbiome are cell-associated, potentially via biofilms, cell adhesion, or intracellularity.”

Vaginal microbiome

A Systems Biology Approach Investigating the Effect of Probiotics on the Vaginal Microbiome and Host Responses in a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Post-Menopausal Women – Jordan E. Bisanz – PLOS ONE

“Analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics profiling revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was increased following probiotic administration as compared to placebo, which was weakly associated with an increase in lactate levels. “

Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women – Hanneke Borgdorff – ISME Journal

“In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. “

* also tweeted by @MicrobiomDigest (yup, that’s me).

[hr]

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s