Human microbiome digest, September 15, 2014

MicrobiomeDigest is back! Lots of new papers came out in my 2-week hiatus, so here we go (more tomorrow):

General (Human) Microbiota

Editorial for Special Issue: Insights into Molecular Mechanisms of Microbiota – Eric C. Martens, Justin L. Sonnenburg, David A. Relman – Journal of Molecular Biology

“Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes has been a goal for decades, but while recent technological advances have greatly expanded our descriptive view of these ecosystems, our knowledge of underlying functions and mechanisms has lagged. “

A Systematic Analysis of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Human Microbiome Reveals a Common Family of Antibiotics – Mohamed S. Donia – Cell

“we identified 3,118 small-molecule biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in genomes of human-associated bacteria and studied their representation in 752 metagenomic samples from the NIH Human Microbiome Project.”

See also:

Mining for Antibiotics, Right Under Our Noses – Carl Zimmer – New York Times

The Integrative Human Microbiome Project: Dynamic Analysis of Microbiome-Host Omics Profiles during Periods of Human Health and Disease – iHMP Consortium – Cell Host & Microbe

“Here we describe the three models of microbiome-associated human conditions, on the dynamics of preterm birth, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 2 diabetes”

Microbiome in pregnancy and birth
Review: Diet and host–microbial crosstalk in postnatal intestinal immune homeostasis – Nitya Jain & W. Allan Walker – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

“In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding early-life nutrition, its effects on the microbiota and the consequences of diet-induced perturbation of the structure of the microbial community on mucosal immunity and disease susceptibility.”

The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology – Jan Stener Joergensen – Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

“a focused systematic review/meta-analysis, which targeted the use of clindamycin before 22 weeks gestation, in women with objective evidence of abnormal genital tract flora, demonstrated that clindamycin produced a significant decrease in late miscarriage and preterm birth.”

Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Diversity in Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Rachel Brower-Sinning – PLOS ONE

26 intestinal samples were resected from 19 infants, including 16 NEC samples and 10 non-NEC samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced. “

Oral human microbiome

The presence of cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity of one-year-old
infants delivered pre-term with very low birthweights: a case control study – Vlasta Merglova – BMC Oral Health

“At 12 months of age, both groups of infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples from the dorsum of the tongue and dental plaque samples were collected.”

Frequent detection of Streptococcus tigurinus in the human oral microbial flora by a specific 16S rRNA gene real-time TaqMan PCR – Andrea Zbinden – BMC Microbiology

“Although S. tigurinus was a frequently detected species of the human oral microbial flora, it was not associated with periodontal disease. “

Oral Microbiome Link to Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma – Konstantin Astafurov – PLOS ONE

“Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria”

Bacterial community composition of chronic periodontitis and novel oral sampling sites for detecting disease indicators  – Vaia Galimanas – Microbiome

“Using SubG, SupG, and tongue plaque DNA from 11 healthy and 13 diseased subjects, we sequenced V3 regions (approximately 200 bases) of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina sequencing.”

Human gut microbiome

TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination – Jason Z. Oh – Immunity

“TLR5-mediated sensing of the microbiota also impacted antibody responses to the inactivated polio vaccine, but not to adjuvanted vaccines or the live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine.”

Review: Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial
perspective – Guus A.M. Kortman – FEMS Microbiology Reviews

“This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health.”

Review: Host–microbe interactions shaping the gastrointestinal environment – Gerard E. Kaiko, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck – Trends in Immunology

“Here we review emerging concepts of how microbial metabolic processes control commensal composition, invading pathogens, immune activation, and intestinal barrier function. “

The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota – Pauline D. Scanlan – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Here, we survey the prevalence, genetic diversity and temporal stability of Blastocystis in a group of healthy adults (n = 105) using a sensitive PCR assay.”

Evaluation of bifidobacterial community composition in the human gut by means of a targeted amplicon sequencing (ITS) protocol – Christian Milani – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Here, we define the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of all currently known Bifidobacterium taxa, providing a Bifidobacterium-specific primer pair that targets a hypervariable region within the ITS suitable for precise taxonomic identification of all 48 so far recognized members of the Bifidobacterium genus.”

Alzheimer’s disease and the microbiome – James M. Hill – Alzheimer’s & Dementia

“In these preliminary studies we evaluated the effects of the anti-amyloid, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory flavonoid quercetin on growth inhibition of the HM-representative Bacteroides galacturonicus (ATCC 43244).”

Complete Suppression of the Gut Microbiome Prevents Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  – Jaak M. Vossen – PLOS ONE

“All patients received T-cell replete marrow from human leukocyte antigens (HLA) matched sibling donors under identical transplantation conditions.”

Associations of the Fecal Microbiome With Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women – Barbara J. Fuhrman – Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

“Our data suggest that women with a more diverse gut microbiome exhibit an elevated urinary ratio of hydroxylated estrogen metabolites to parent estrogen. “

Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis – Nan Qin – Nature

“Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. “

Altered intestinal microbiota and blood T cell phenotype are shared by patients with Crohn’s disease and their unaffected siblings – Charlotte R Hedin – Gut

“Faecal microbiology was analysed by quantitative PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA, FC by ELISA, blood T cell phenotype by flow cytometry and IP by differential lactulose-rhamnose absorption in 22 patients with inactive CD, 21 of their healthy siblings and 25 controls.”

Detection of bacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Crohn’s disease patients using high throughput sequencing – Claire L O’Brien – Gut

“Universal primers targeting V1–V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to amplify bacterial DNA and amplicons sequenced using high throughput sequencing. “

Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria – Elizabeth A. Rettedal – Nature Communications

“Here, we show that carefully designed conditions enable cultivation of a representative proportion of human gut bacteria, enabling rapid multiplex phenotypic profiling. “

Animal models of human microbiome research

Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation – Yoshiyuki Goto – Science

“Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. “

Effect of Metformin on Metabolic Improvement and Gut Microbiota – Heetae Lee and GwangPyo Ko – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota was investigated using a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity with and without metformin treatment. “

Microbiota modulate transcription in the intestinal epithelium without remodeling the accessible chromatin landscape – J. Gray Camp – Genome Research

“We profiled transcriptome and accessible chromatin landscapes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from mice reared in the presence or absence of microbiota.”

Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota – Husen Zhang – ISME Journal

“Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1−/− mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment.”


Human microbiome, July 8

Female urinary microbiome, stool microbiome and vaccine responses, and gut microbiome in ulcerative colitis patients.

Urinary tract

The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence – Meghan M. Pearce – mBio

“In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. “

Gut microbiome

Stool Microbiota and Vaccine Responses of Infants – M. Nazmul Huda – Pediatrics

“Bifidobacterium predominance may enhance thymic development and responses to both oral and parenteral vaccines early in infancy”

Novel Gut-Based Pharmacology of Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – Antonella Napolitano – PLOS ONE

“Microbiota abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was positively correlated with changes in cholic acid and conjugates, while Bacteroidetes abundance was negatively correlated.”

This one was already published online in September 2013 but it came out in print this week : Commentary: Roseburia hominis: a novel guilty player in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis – Herbert Tilg – Gut

“In recent years evidence was accumulating that the gut microbiota and its manipulation might constitute one of those relevant ‘environmental’ factors. “

A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis – Kathleen Machiels – Gut

“The composition of the fecal microbiota of UC patients differs from that of healthy individuals: we found a reduction in R hominis and F prausnitzii, both well-known butyrate-producing bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum. “

Pregnancy and birth

Direct Evidence for the Presence of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in the Circulation of Breastfed Infants – Karen C. Goehring – PLOS ONE

“At least some ingested HMOs are absorbed intact into the circulation and excreted in the urine and their concentrations in these fluids correlate with levels of the corresponding mother’s milk”

Commentary: More than a gut feeling: predicting surgical necrotising enterocolitis – Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp – Gut

“The paper by Sylvester et al 8 describes a new non-invasive approach of combining clinical data and selected urine peptide biomarkers to develop an algorithm to predict progression of suspected medical NEC to surgical disease. “

refers to: A novel urine peptide biomarker-based algorithm for the prognosis of necrotising enterocolitis in human infants – Karl G Sylvester – Gut

“Ensemble modelling combining clinical parameters with biomarker analysis dramatically improves our ability to identify the population at risk for developing progressive NEC.”

Animal models

Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity – Enusha Karunasena – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex.”

General human microbiome

Phylogenetics and the human microbiome – Frederick A Matsen IV – Submitted to Systematic Biology

“In this paper I review the field and its methods from the perspective of a phylogeneticist, as well as describing current challenges for phylogenetics coming from this type of work.”


Human microbiome, June 10

Today we’ll cover the lung microbiome, salivary gland function, NEC, and sequencing of cosmid clones.
Oral microbiome

AutophagyAutophagy Correlates with Maintenance of Salivary Gland Function Following Radiation – Maria Morgan-Bathke – Nature Scientific Reports

“Thus, autophagy appears to play a beneficial role in salivary glands following radiation”

UbiquitousUbiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria – Saori Yoneda – PLOS ONE

“Using microarray analysis, we examined the transcriptional response of F. nucleatum subspecies nucleatum to whole blood in order to identify some of the genetic responses that might occur during the transition from health to disease.”

NYU and UCSF researchers develop a framework for monitoring oral cancer – ScienceCodex

“”We know that other cancers, including gallbladder, colon, lung and prostate, have been associated with particular bacterial infections, so we hypothesized that shifts in the composition of the normal oral cavity microbiome could be promoters or causes of oral cancer,” said Dr. Albertson.”

Respiratory microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.32.19 PMBreathing Life into Lung Microbiome Research – Rina Shaikh-Lesko – The Scientist

“Although it’s far less populated than the mouth community that helps feed it, researchers increasingly appreciate the role of the lung microbiome in respiratory health.”

Impact off extImpact of Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Densities in Healthy Adults – Joshua R. Shak – PLOS ONE

“To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B.”

Pregnancy and Birth

BrainModerate and Late Preterm Birth: Effect on Brain Size and Maturation at Term-Equivalent Age – Jennifer M. Walsh – Radiology

“MLPT birth is associated with smaller brain size, less-developed myelination of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and more immature gyral folding than those associated with full-term birth. “

Preemie Research Highlights Concerns With Human Experimentation – Frederick Reese – Mintpress

“Parents weren’t fully aware of the risks associated with a medical research trial they allowed their babies to participate in.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.30.20 PMSmall Intestinal Intraepithelial TCRγδ+ T Lymphocytes Are Present in the Premature Intestine but Selectively Reduced in Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp – PLOS ONE

“In human preterm infants, the proportion of IEL was reduced by 66% in 11 NEC ileum resections compared to 30 non-NEC controls (p<0.001). While γδ IEL dominated over conventional αβ IEL early in gestation in mice and in humans, γδ IEL were preferential decreased in the ileum of surgical NEC patients compared to non-NEC controls (50% reduction, p<0.05).”

Antibiotics and microbiome

Synthetic Biologics and Enterome Bioscience Collaborate on Microbiome Research to Support Synthetic Biologics’ C. difficile Program – MarketWatch

“Synthetic Biologics, Inc. (nyse mkt:SYN), a developer of novel anti-infective biologic and drug candidates targeting specific pathogens that cause serious infections and diseases, and Enterome Bioscience SA, a pioneer in the development of innovative disease management solutions based on a deep understanding of the gut microbiome, today announced that they have entered into an agreement to conduct metagenomic research on the effects of beta-lactam antibiotics on the gastrointestinal microflora (microbiome) of human patients”

Animal models of human disease

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.38.10 PMSaccharomyces boulardii Administration Changes Gut Microbiota and Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Low-Grade Inflammation, and Fat Mass in Obese and Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice – Amandine Everard – mBio

“Here we found that type 2 diabetic and obese mice (db/db) treated with Saccharomyces boulardii exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. “

Metagenomics and sequencing

Evaluation of a pooledEvaluation of a Pooled Strategy for High-Throughput Sequencing of Cosmid Clones from Metagenomic Libraries – Kathy N. Lam – PLOS ONE

“We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. “


Human Microbiomes, June 9

Apples and coffee are good for your teeth, exercise good for your microbial diversity, role of microbiota in lung cancer, and lots of metabolomics papers.

Human Oral Microbiome (and some skin too!)

AppleAnticaries effect of an antioxidant-rich apple concentrate on enamel in an experimental biofilm-demineralisation model – Rodrigo A. Giacaman – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Streptococcus mutans biofilms exposed to ARAC after a cariogenic challenge with sucrose induced lower enamel demineralisation than the positive control. The highest dilution of ARAC at 1: 100,000 (v/v) showed the most marked reduction in demineralisation of about fifty seven percent.”

CRIPSrConservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva – Refugio Robles-Sikisaka – BMC Microbiology

“We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site”

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 2.09.54 AMAntibacterial effect of coffee: calcium concentration in a culture containing teeth/biofilm exposed to Coffea Canephora aqueous extract – N. Meckelburg -Letters in Applied Microbiology

“This study revealed an inhibitory action of Coffea canephora against dental biofilm. This coffee species caused bacterial lysis and consequent release of calcium into the medium.”

Human gut microbiome

ClarkeExercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity – Siobhan F Clarke – Gut

“… athletes had a higher diversity of gut micro-organisms, representing 22 distinct phyla, which in turn positively correlated with protein consumption and creatine kinase.”

BMReview: Molecular ecological tools to decipher the role of our microbial mass in obesity – GDA Hermes – Beneficial Microbes

“ This review aims to describe the different molecular approaches and their contributions to our understanding of the role of the GI microbiota in host energy homeostasis. ”

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 1.00.40 AMFecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis – L. Daniels – European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

“Differences in bacterial phylum abundance and diversity (Shannon index) of the resulting profiles were assessed by conventional statistics. Dissimilarity in microbiome composition was analyzed with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on cosine distance measures. “

Impaired Innate Immune Function Associated with Fecal Supernatant from Crohn’s Disease Patients: Insights into Potential Pathogenic Role of the Microbiome – Meelu, Parool – Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Opinion Article: Gut Microbes and Host Physiology: What Happens when you Host Billions of Guests? – Jennifer L. Pluznick – Frontiers in Endocrinology

“The literature is rife with examples of phenotypes which were not easily replicated by other groups – even when using the “same mice” – and we should consider whether some of these examples may be, in fact, due to the influence of gut microbiota.”

ProalInflammatory Disease and the Human Microbiome – Amy D Proal – Discovery Medicine

“The microbes that contribute to this dysfunction are often inherited from family members. Immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory disease allow pathogens driving these processes to spread with greater ease.”

BMUnderstanding gut microbiota in elderly’s health will enable intervention through probiotics – G. Pérez Martínez – Beneficial Microbes

“Intervention studies of probiotics and prebiotics in elderly are not very abundant, but most cases showed that Bifidobacterium populations can efficiently be stimulated with a concomitant decrease of Enterobacteria. “

ClarkeGut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ – Gerard Clarke – Molecular Endocrinology

“Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA).”

The June issue of Gut this month features the abstracts from the British Society of Gastroenterology Annual General Meeting 16–19 June 2014 in a Supplemental issue

Human respiratory microbiome

Screen shot 2014-06-09 at 04.19PM, Jun 09The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures – H. Dean Hosgood III – Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

“This study seeks to explore the role of lung microbiota in lung cancer among never smoking Xuanwei women and how coal burning may influence these associations.”

Pregnancy and Birth

StrongholdPregnancy’s Stronghold on the Vaginal Microbiome – Marina R. S. Walther-António – PLOS ONE

“For a majority of the patients (n = 8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy.”

Masters Thesis: The Effect of Nutrition on the Microbiome in Pregnant Women and the Use of Micronutrient Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt to Improve Outcomes – Megan Kathleen Enos – University of Western Ontario

“The aims of this study were to characterize the gut, oral, and vaginal microbiotas of pregnant women ….. a clinical study was performed in Mwanza, Tanzania”

WopereisThe first thousand days – intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis – Harm Wopereis – Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

“This review provides an overview of the development of the intestinal microbiota, its bidirectional relationship with the immune system, and its role in impacting health and disease, with emphasis on allergy, in early life.”


RinehartMetabolomic data streaming for biology-dependent data acquisition – Duane Rinehart – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we describe a solution to the time demands of metabolomic data upload to XCMS Online. In brief, we designed XCMS Online software that enables uploading of metabolomic data files from the instrument computer workstation as they are acquired. “

SulekA combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans – Karolina Sulek – Anaerobe

“All tested carbohydrate sources resulted in a significant increase of Bifidobacterium spp. between 1.79 fold (HA) and 1.64 fold (FOS) in the microbial populations after fermentation”

FariaInterplay between anthocyanins and gut microbiota – Ana Faria – J. Agric. Food Chem

“This review aimed to compile information regarding interaction of anthocyanins with microbiota, in two perspectives: i) identification of their colonic metabolites as potential bioactive molecules and ii) their role as prebiotic agents.”

Identification of the metabolites of myricitrin produced by human intestinal bacteria in vitro using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry – Le-yue Du – Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

“To investigate the metabolic routes and metabolites of myricitrin, an important active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine, yielded by the isolated human intestinal bacteria, which have not been reported previously”

CrossA prospective study of serum metabolites and colorectal cancer risk – Amanda J. Cross – Cancer

“No overall associations were observed between serum metabolites and colorectal cancer, but serum glycochenodeoxycholate, a bile acid metabolite, was positively associated with colorectal cancer among women”

Gut microbiota and cardiometabolic outcomes: influence of dietary patterns and their associated components – Julia MW Wong – Am J Clin Nutr

“Examples of dietary components that alter the gut microbial composition include prebiotics and resistant starches.”

GaldzickiThe Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology – Michal Galdzicki – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers.”

Animal models of human disease

Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of necrotizing enterocolitis: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges – Peng Lu – American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

“In an attempt to provide some guidance to the growing community of NEC researchers, we now seek to review the key features of the major NEC models that have been developed in mammalian and nonmammalian species and to assess the advantages, disadvantage, challenges and major scientific discoveries yielded by each. “

Oral infection ecoliOral infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli triggers immune response and intestinal histological alterations in mice selected for their minimal acute inflammatory responses – Amanda Bardella Vulcano – Microbiology and Immunology

In summary, it was found that EPEC triggers immune responses and intestinal histological alterations but does not produce evidence of diarrheal disease in mice infected by the oral route.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 2.00.38 AMDistinct signatures of host–microbial meta-metabolome and gut microbiome in two C57BL/6 strains under high-fat diet – Alesia Walker – ISME J

A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. “

General Human Microbiome

Why There is No Single Healthy Microbiome – Erik Garnas – Organic Fitness

“This quest for the perfect microbiome has not only led many people to tweak their diet and lifestyle in an attempt to be the best possible host, but also to the rapid growth of what is now a billion dollar market of probiotics, prebiotics, and other products that are specifically designed to modulate the microbial communities in and on the human body. “


Human microbiome digest, June 3, 2014

Antimicrobial proteins in saliva, Lactobacillus spp and preterm birth, and probiotics. It’s been a long day, so no pictures today.

Oral microbiome

Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque – Jennifer Malcolm – Molecular Oral Microbiology

“Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at three-years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, HNPs 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans.”

Pregnancy and birth

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery – Ljubomir Petricevic – Nature Scientific Reports

“This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery”

Development of the preterm gut microbiota in infants at risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis – Christopher Stewart – Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University

Intestinal Microbial Community Profiles of a Newborn Preterm Infant Using Pyrosequencing Analysis: Pilot Study (in Korean)- Jong-Geol Kim – Neonatal Medicine

“The bacterial community in the newborn’s meconium was quite similar to that in the AF, which was dominated by Sphingomonas (45.2%). “

Gut microbiome

Relating the metatranscriptome and metagenome of the human gut – Eric A. Franzosa with Curtis Huttenhower – PNAS

“Measurements of microbial species, gene, and gene transcript composition within self-collected samples were consistent across sampling methods.”

Defining the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in the mammalian gut within the context of environmental eukaryotic diversity – Laura W. Parfrey – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We show that adults from non-western populations harbor a diverse community of protists, and diversity in the human gut is comparable to that in other mammals. “

General human microbiome

Culturing For Cures – UCSF Scientists Explore the Bacterial Communities that Live In and On Our Bodies to Find Treatments for Disease – Claire Conway – UCSF News

“Scientists are hard at work trying to leverage the extraordinary healing powers of the microbiome, mining it for treatments of a variety of conditions, including asthma, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity.”


Autoinducer-2 Plays a Crucial Role in Gut Colonization and Probiotic Functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 – Steven E. A. Christiaen – PLOS ONE

“we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition”

Urinary metabolomic fingerprinting after consumption of a probiotic strain in women with mastitis – Rosa Vázquez-Fresno – Pharmacological Research

“The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the identification of the overall effects of probiotic consumption among women suffering from mastitis and highlighted the potential of this approach in evaluating the outcomes of probiotics consumption.”

Animal models of gut microbiota

Effects of subchronic exposure of silver nanoparticles on intestinal microbiota and gut-associated immune responses in the ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats – Katherine Williams – Nanotoxicology

“This study evaluated changes in the populations of intestinal-microbiota and intestinal-mucosal gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats (both male and female) that were gavaged orally with discrete sizes of AgNP (10, 75 and 110 nm) and silver acetate.”


Oral Abstract: The high colon cancer risk in African Americans can be reduced by dietary modification – Stephen O’Keefe – Cancer & Metabolism

“dietary switch between these two populations produces reciprocal changes in the microbiome, metabolome, and mucosal biomarkers of risk within 2 weeks”

Strategies in Discovery Metabolomics – Kate Marusina – GenEngNews

Microbiome conferences

2nd World Congress on Targeting Microbiota – Institut Pasteur, Paris, France – October 16-17, 2014