Microbiome Digest, October 20, 2014

Oral core microbiome, symbionts in crabs, sponges, and Drosophila, metabolites in dolphin’s breath, and retraction of a paper favored by Dr. Oz.

Pregnancy and birth

NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes – Sathyaprasad C Burjonrappa, Brian Shea, Diya Goorah – Journal of Neonatal Surgery

“There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event.”

Human oral microbiome

Intraindividual variation in core microbiota in peri-implantitis and periodontitis – Noriko Maruyama – Scientific Reports

“To improve our knowledge of the different communities of complex oral microbiota, we compared the microbial features between peri-implantitis and periodontitis in 20 patients with both diseases. “

Antimicrobial Effect of Lemongrass Oil against Oral Malodor Microorganisms and the Pilot Study of Safety and Efficacy of Lemongrass Mouthrinse on Oral Malodor – Panitta Satthanakul – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Antimicrobial activity of LG mouthrinse was examined against common odorigenic microorganisms using broth microdilution assay and the disc diffusion method. A randomized double-blind clinical study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers.”

Animal microbiome

Molecular evidence of digestion and absorption of epibiotic bacterial community by deep-sea crab Shinkaia crosnieri – Tomo-o Watsuji – ISME Journal

“A phylogenetic analysis showed that many of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained from the intestine were closely related to the sequences of the epibionts, thus they were probably derived from the epibionts.”

* In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors – Peter D. Newell – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. “

* Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella – Marie L. Cuvelier – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing.”

* Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality – Fan Zhang – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. “

Plant microbiome

Reduced dependence of rhizosphere microbiome on plant-derived carbon in 32-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilized soils – Chao Ai – Soil Biology and Biochemistry

“Wheat rhizosphere microbiome was studied by stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing.”

Environmental microbiome

Characterization of bacterial communities associated with seasonal water masses from Tongyoung in South Sea of Korea – Sung-Suk Suh – Ocean Science Journal

“In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with two different water masses from Tongyoung in the South Sea of Korea. “

Bacterial community structure of a lab-scale anammox membrane bioreactor – Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez – Biotechnology Progress

“In this study, next-generation sequencing techniques have been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of this MBR Anammox for the first time ever. “

Metagenomics & Bioinformatics

GenomePeek: What exactly is that sequencing data? – Katelyn McNair – MicroBEnet

“I wrote the initial version of GenomePeek, and tested it with various data sets using this student’s data. I quickly found that some genes work better than others, and so currently the four genes analyzed are: 16S, recA, rpoB, and groEL.”

Metabolomics

Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath – Alexander A. Aksenov – Analytical Chemistry

“We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). “

Proteomics

Symbiosis, Dysbiosis and Rebiosis – the value of metaproteomics in human microbiome monitoring – Lei Mao and Jacqueline Franke – Proteomics

“After a brief review of the history and state-of-the-art of metaproteomics in the field of environmental health research, focus of this perspective article will be put on the role of cross-species joint efforts in symbiosis, dysbiosis and rebiosis of the human gut during human development, pathogenesis and aging.”

More microbiology

Bridging the gap between viable but non-culturable and antibiotic persistent bacteria – Mesrop Ayrapetyan – Trends in Microbiology

“This discussion is intended to stimulate discourse about these seemingly different but very similar dormant states.”

* Phylogenomic Reconstruction Indicates Mitochondrial Ancestor Was an Energy Parasite
Zhang Wang, Martin Wu – PLOS ONE

“Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria.”

Real-time video imaging as a new and rapid tool for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method: a paradigm for evaluating resistance to imipenem and identifying extended-spectrum β-lactamases – Stéphanie Le Page – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

“..we present here for the first time video movies of the appearance of the diameter of inhibition by the disk diffusion in real-time. “

Microbes in the news

Can Microbes Help Feed the World? – Amy Mayer – BioScience

“To help meet the challenge for food, scientists are using new technologies to better understand the role that soil microbes might play in bolstering agricultural production. “

Dentists Want To See Studies On Pot-Cavity Link – CBS Local

“Patients are experiencing tooth decay, expensive dentist bills and the pain of dealing with it all. The biggest side effect is dry mouth.”

Bik’s Picks

Brain surgery, by robot, through the cheek – Science Daily

“Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the engineers have designed the system so that much of it can be made using 3-D printing in order to keep the price low.”

* Hilarious cartoons on Imgur: Real Scientists vs. Movie Scientists 

* Authors retract green coffee bean diet paper touted by Dr. Oz – Ivan Oransky – Retraction Watch

“Two authors of a 2012 paper sponsored by a company that made grand claims about green coffee bean extract’s abilities to help people lose weight have retracted it. The study was cited by The Dr. Oz Show, and last month it cost the company a $3.5 million settlement with the Feds.”

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Non-human microbiome, August 14, 2014

Microbial diversity in lichen, rhizosphere microbiome, and a trip to the bottom of the “seaquence”.

Plant microbiome

Algal and Fungal Diversity in Antarctic Lichens – Chae Haeng Park – Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

“In the current study, we analyzed algal and lichen-associated fungal community structure in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic LSU and algal ITS domains of the nuclear rRNA gene.”

Nitrogen-transforming archaea and bacteria in tropical soils are affected under transgenic as compared to non-transgenic maize – Simone Raposo Cotta – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“The data show that significant changes occurred in the abundances (revealed by qPCR) of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities as a result of the maize host being genetically-modified.”

Soil microbiome

Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site
Shinjini Mukherjee – ISME Journal

“Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. “

Water microbiome

Carbohydrate-active enzymes identified by metagenomic analysis of deep-sea sediment bacteria – Barbara Klippel – Extremophiles

“Metagenomic DNA purified from the pooled enrichments was sequenced and analyzed for phylogenetic composition and presence of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes.”

Voyage to the bottom of the ‘seaquence’ – Rachael Wash & Carmen Diaz Soria – Nature Reviews Microbiology

“This month’s Genome Watch highlights the use of deep sequencing metagenomics to identify bacteriophages that carry sulphur-oxidizing genes in deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes.”

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Microbiome digest, August 13, 2014

Nose, glycan, butyrate, microbes on plastics, seawater microbial mats, and plants with microbes.

Respiratory microbiome

The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults – Christine M Bassis, Alice L Tang, Vincent B Young and Melissa A Pynnonen – Microbiome

“In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects.”

Gut microbiome

Glycan Degradation (GlyDeR) Analysis Predicts Mammalian Gut Microbiota Abundance and Host Diet-Specific Adaptations – Omer Eilam – mBio

“Based on GlyDeR, we found a clear connection between microbial glycan degradation and human diet, and we suggest a method for the rational design of novel prebiotics.”

Microbial-Derived Butyrate: An Oncometabolite or Tumor-Suppressive Metabolite? -Scott J. Bultman, Christian Jobin – Cell Host & Microbe

“Dietary factors, microbial composition, and metabolism are intimately intertwined into a complex network whose activities influence important intestinal functions”

Review: Collateral Damage: Microbiota-Derived Metabolites and Immune Function in the Antibiotic Era – Christopher A. Lopez – Cell Host & Microbe

“A disruption of gut-associated microbial communities by antibiotic treatment can result in a depletion of microbiota-derived metabolites, thereby enhancing pathogen susceptibility, impairing immune homeostasis, and contributing to the rise of certain chronic inflammatory diseases”

Animal model of microbiome

Differential Modulation by Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii of Host Peripheral Lipid Metabolism and Histone Acetylation in Mouse Gut Organoids
Sabina Lukovac – mBio

“The aim of this study was to characterize effects of the microbiota on host epithelium using a novel ex vivo model based on mouse ileal organoids.”

Plant microbiome

Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors – Thomas R. Williams, Maria L. Marco – mBio

We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce.”

Fundamental Plant Chemicals Rooted in Bacteria – Jenna Iacurci – Nature World News

“A fundamental chemical pathway that all plants use to create the essential amino acid phenylalanine has now been traced to two groups of ancient bacteria, a new study reports.”

Water microbiome

Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters – Sonja Oberbeckmann – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location, and comprised of bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and members of the eukaryotes Bacillariophyceae and Phaeophyceae. “

Molecular Ecology of Microbial Mats – Henk Bolhuis – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring and hypersaline).”

Microbes in the news

Wearable structure of bacteria references antique animal bone corsets

“in terms of the material, it is grown from acetobacter xylinum, a strain of bacteria that produces a microbial cellulose textile as it consumes glucose.”

Bik’s Picks

Google Maps Dives Underwater – Scientific American

Google has taken its ‘street view’ maps to a whole new level—namely, the ocean’s depths. “

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Non-human microbiome, August 5, 2014

Microbiome papers on giraffes, sheeps, sponges and corals, soybean, soil, seawater, and fungi found in vacuum cleaner dust.

Mammal microbiome

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome – Michael Roggenbuck, Cathrine Sauer, Morten Poulsen, Mads F. Bertelsen, Søren Johannes Sørensen – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Here we investigated the microbial community of 7 wild-caught giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), 3 of which were fed natural browse and 4 were fed Boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16S rRNA gene diversity using 454 FLX high throughput sequencing. “

Two Different Bacterial Community Types Are Linked with the Low-Methane Emission Trait in Sheep – Sandra Kittelmann – PLOS ONE

“Bacterial community structures in 236 rumen samples from 118 high- and low-CH4 emitting sheep formed gradual transitions between three ruminotypes. Two of these (Q and S) were linked to significantly lower CH4 yields”

Invertebrate microbiome

Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges – Mohd Azrul Naim, Jose A. Morillo, Søren J. Sørensen, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Hauke Smidt and Detmer Sipkema – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North-Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments.”

Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges– Mohd Azrul Naim – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North-Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. “

Disturbance to conserved bacterial communities in the cold water gorgonian coral Eunicella verrucosa – Emma Ransome – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“The bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased colonies of the cold water gorgonian coral Eunicella verrucosa at three sites off the south-west coast of England were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries. “

Application of a new cultivation technology, I-tip, for studying microbial diversity in freshwater sponges of Lake Baikal, Russia – Dawoon Jung – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“The I-tip was developed as an in situ cultivation device that allows microorganisms to enter and natural chemical compounds to diffuse, thereby permitting the microorganisms to grow utilizing chemical compounds in their natural environment. “

Plant microbiome

Comparison of the Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities of Zigongdongdou Soybean and a High-Methionine Transgenic Line of This Cultivar – Jingang Liang – PLOS ONE

“Using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis of the V4 region and DNA extracted from bacterial consortia collected from the rhizosphere of soybean plants grown in an agricultural field at the pod-setting stage, we characterized the populational structure of the bacterial community involved.”

Soil microbiome

Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance – Leise Riber, Pernille Hasse Busk Poulsen, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Lea Benedicte Skov Hansen, Lasse Bergmark, Asker Brejnrod, Anders Norman, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Jakob Magid andSøren Johannes Sørensen – FEMS Microbiology Immunology

“Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were enumerated, and the impact on soil-bacterial community structure was investigated using 16S-rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing.”

Microbial Diversity in Hummock and Hollow Soils of Three Wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Revealed by 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing – Yongcui Deng – PLOS ONE

“Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that the microbial community structure differed between locations and microtopographies and canonical correspondence analysis indicated an association between microbial community structure and soil properties or geography. “

Seawater microbiome

Metaproteomics reveals differential modes of metabolic coupling among ubiquitous oxygen minimum zone microbes – Alyse K. Hawley, Heather M. Brewer, Angela D. Norbeck, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, and Steven J. Hallam – PNAS USA

“Here we use metagenomic and metaproteomic methods to chart in situ metabolic networks linking key microbial players driving carbon and nutrient cycling in a seasonally stratified fjord, Saanich Inlet”

Sequencing on the Seven Seas – Rina Shaikh-Lesko – The Scientist

“Researchers have installed an advanced genomics lab facility aboard a boat to create a floating molecular testing facility for marine life sciences”

Microbiome of the Built Environment

Characterization of Fungal Communities in House Dust Samples Collected From Central Portugal—A Preliminary Survey – Ana C.A. Sousa – Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health

“A total of 28 samples were obtained from vacuum cleaner deposits from households located in central Portugal. DNA was extracted from dust samples and fungal communities were analyzed using a culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)– denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach. “

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Microbiome digest, August 4, 2014

Relief in a pressing problem, microbes at high altitude, and microbiome in cystic fibrosis.

Human gut microbiome

So glad this one finally came out!  Structural changes in the gut microbiome of constipated patients – Lixin Zhu – Physiological Genomics

“A cross-sectional pilot study was performed to compare stool microbial composition of 8 constipated patients and 14 non-constipated controls using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.”

Microbiota and diabetes: an evolving relationship – Herbert Tilg, Alexander R Moschen – Gut

“A further hint towards an association between microbiota and T2D has been derived from studies in pregnancy showing that major gut microbial shifts occurring during pregnancy affect host metabolism.”

Harnessing the Intestinal Microbiome for Optimal Therapeutic Immunomodulation – S. Viaud – Cancer Research

“gut commensals, through lipopolysaccharide and other bacterial components, switch the tumor microenvironment, in particular the redox equilibrium and the TNF production of intratumoral myeloid cells during therapies with platinum salts or intratumoral TLR9 agonists combined with systemic anti-IL10R Ab respectively.”

Specific genetic and microbial signature associated with paediatric ileal Crohn’s disease -Isobel Leake – Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

“An increase in DUOX2 expression was associated with an expansion of Proteobacteria across all forms of IBD, whereas downregulation of APOA1 expression in association with depletion of certain Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa was found to be specific for Crohn’s disease.”

Skin and wounds microbiome

Next-Generation Sequencing: A Review of Technologies and Tools for Wound Microbiome Research – Brendan Hodkinson and Elizabeth Grice – Advances in Wound Care

“The purpose of this review is to outline the current platforms, their applications, and the steps necessary to undertake microbiome studies using next-generation sequencing.”

Human respiratory microbiome

Directly Sampling the Lung of a Young Child with Cystic Fibrosis Reveals Diverse Microbiota – Perry S Brown – Annals ATS

“After pathologic examination verified that this child’s lung tissue reflected CF lung disease, we used bacterial rRNA gene pyrosequencing and computational phylogenetic analysis to identify the microbiota in serial sections of the tissue.”

Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj – Samir Benkouiten – Emerging Infectious Diseases

“One third (36.3%) of the participants had acquired S. pneumoniae during their stay. Our results confirm high acquisition rates of rhinovirus and S. pneumoniae in pilgrims and highlight the acquisition of coronavirus E229.”

Fish microbiome

The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae – Christos Giatsis – PLOS ONE

“Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. “

Soil microbiome

FEMS Microbiology Ecology has a special issue on Polar and Alpine Microbiology with many papers on microbiomes of ice and soil. Here is the Editorial:
Polar and alpine microbiology in a changing world – John C. Priscu – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“By virtue of their relatively rapid growth rates and metabolic diversity, we can expect microorganisms to be the first responders to fluctuating climatic conditions.”

Altitudinal Distribution Patterns of Soil Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Along Mt. Shegyla on the Tibetan Plateau – Jun-Tao Wang – Microbial Ecology

“Our results found that the ratio of bacterial to archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance was negatively related with elevation.”

Water microbiome

Satellite remote sensing data can be used to model marine microbial metabolite turnover – Peter E Larsen – ISME Journal

“We extrapolated marine surface microbial community structure and metabolic potential from 72 16S rRNA amplicon and 8 metagenomic observations using remotely sensed environmental parameters”

Microbial Ecology

Changes in community assembly may shift the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function – Joseph E. Knelman and Diana R. Nemergut – Frontiers Microbiology

“Can differences in community assembly alter the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function?”

Probiotics

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction – I. Sadowska-Krawczenko – Beneficial Microbes

“Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product.”

Can Eating Probiotic Yogurt Help Lower Your High Blood Pressure? – Susmita Baral – Wall St Cheat Sheet

“Now, a new study (published Monday in the journal Hypertension) has found another added benefit of probiotics — it may reduce high blood pressure.”

Microbes in the News

Your garden hose: a potential health risk due to Legionella spp. growth facilitated by free-living amoebae – Jacqueline Marie Thomas – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here we present data on FLA and Legionella spp. detected in water and biofilm of two garden hose types over 18 months. “

Truth about your toothbrush – Anne Agbaje – Bussiness Day Online

“You don’t store your plates and glasses by the toilet, so why would you want to place your toothbrush there?” McCombs says. “It’s just common sense to store your toothbrush as far away from the toilet as possible.”

Metabolomics

Fecal volatile organic compounds: a novel, cheaper method of diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease? – Chris SJ Probert – Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

“…this article will focus specifically on the fecal VOC metabolome and its potential role in identifying a novel diagnostic method for IBD.”

Review: Emerging mass spectrometry techniques for the direct analysis of microbial colonies – Jinshu Fang, Pieter C Dorrestein – Current Opinion in Microbiology

“In this review/perspective, we illustrate the emerging mass spectrometry methodologies that enable the interrogation of specialized metabolites directly from microbial colonies.”

Techniques

Improved performance of the PacBio SMRT technology for 16S rDNA sequencing – Jennifer J. Mosher – Journal of Microbiological Methods

“With accurate read lengths of > 1400 base pairs, the PacBio system opens up the possibility of identifying microorganisms to the species level in environmental samples.”

 

Bik’s Picks

The Secret to a Tattoo’s Permanence: The Immune System – Olga Khazan – The Atlantic

“We rarely stop and think about the science of tattoos. In fact, some people don’t even stop and think before getting tattooed.”

 

Mathematical equation to predict happiness: Doesn’t depend on how well things go, but on whether things are better than expected – Science Daily

The happiness of over 18,000 people worldwide has been predicted by a mathematical equation, with results showing that moment-to-moment happiness reflects not just how well things are going, but whether things are going better than expected.”

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Non-human microbiome, June 30

Primate vaginal microbiome, birds painting eggs with bacteria, MHC and microbiota in fish, onions and tomato, bacteria on the beach, and (#BacteriaHysteria alert) “fecal veneer on climbing walls”.

Primate microbiome (also see Human digest)

Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.23.32 PMPrimate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance – Suleyman Yildirim – ISME J (uncorrected proof, link to Chapman Research)

“Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and extent of diversity”

Bird microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.43.49 PMSpecial structures of hoopoe eggshells enhance the adhesion of symbiont-carrying uropygial secretion that increase hatching success – Manuel Martín-Vivaldi – Journal of Animal Ecology

“The findings of specialized crypts on the eggshells of hoopoes, and of video-recorded females smearing secretion containing symbiotic bacteria at a high density onto the eggshells strongly support a link between secretion and bacteria on eggs. “

and:  The Bird That Paints Its Eggs With Bacteria – Ed Yong – National Geographic

“Now, they’ve found evidence that these birds use the same bacteria to protect their young before they’re even born. By filming nesting females, they confirmed that the birds actively paint their eggs with their uropygial secretions.”

Fish microbiology

Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.45.12 PMMajor Histocompatibility Complex class II polymorphism influences gut microbiota composition and diversity – Daniel I. Bolnick – Molecular Ecology

“Here, we show that MHC II polymorphism is associated with among-individual variation in gut microbiota within a single wild vertebrate population of a small fish, the threespine stickleback. “

Insect microbiome

WolbachiaThe Coevolutionary Period of Wolbachia pipientis Infecting Drosophila ananassae and its Impact on the Evolution of the Host Germline Stem Cell Regulating Genes – Jae Young Choi and Charles F. Aquadro – Molecular Biology and Evolution

“Phylogenetic analysis of D. ananassae mitochondrial DNA and W. pipientis DNA sequence diversity revealed the current W. pipientis infection is not recent. In addition, we examined the population genetics and molecular evolution of several Germline Stem Cell (GSC) regulating genes of D. ananassae”

Plant microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.43.01 PMIdentification of bacteria pathogenic to or associated with onion (Allium cepa) based on sequence differences in a portion of the conserved gyrase B gene – Jean M. Bonasera – Journal of Microbiological Methods

“We have developed a method for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly members of the Enterobacteriaceae, based on sequence variation in a portion of the gyrB gene. Thus, we identified, in most cases to species level, over 1000 isolates from onion bulbs and leaves and soil in which onions were grown.”

Occurrence and distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with the climatic variables – Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar – Microbial Biotechnology

“One hundred samples of tomato seeds were collected in 2011 and 2012 from tomato-cultivated fields in Saudi Arabia and screened for their seed-borne mycoflora. A total of 30 genera and 57 species of fungi were recovered from the collected seed samples using agar plate and deep-freezing blotter methods. “

WasabiManagement of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato with endophytic bacteria and fresh residue of Wasabia japonica – Guang-Ju Li – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera.”

Lichen and fungi

Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.46.20 PMA single macrolichen constitutes hundreds of unrecognized species – Robert Lücking – PNAS

“This lichen was long believed to represent a single species, but after revising this number to 16 in two genera (Cora and Corella), here we show that at least 126 phylogenetically and morphologically distinct species are contained within this group, with statistical analysis predicting more than 400. “

Soil, sand, and slurry microbiome

The Ecological Controls on the Prevalence of Candidate Division TM7 in Polar Regions – Tristrom Winsley – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups’ seemingly ubiquitous nature. “

Review: Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public
health – Emmanuel Velonakis – Journal of Coastal Life Medicine

“Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load”

Crusts slurryMethanotrophs, methanogens, and microbial community structure in livestock slurry surface crusts – Yun-Feng Duan – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“Microbial communities in four crusts from cattle and swine slurries were investigated using DGGE and tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing. All crusts had distinct compositions of bacteria and archaea.”

Water microbiology

Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria
Vinayak Agarwal – Nature Chemical Biology

“Herein we report the discovery of a conserved biosynthetic gene cluster in marine bacteria responsible for the synthesis of widespread polybrominated aromatic compounds”

Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems – Télesphore Sime – Ngando – Frontiers in Microbiology

“The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages) in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.”

Built Environment

I really dislike this title …
Screen Shot 2014-06-30 at 11.47.38 PMMicrobial Sequencing Analyses Suggest the Presence of a Fecal Veneer on Indoor Climbing Wall Holds – S. L. Bräuer – Current Microbiology

“In contrast to many other studies of built environments, the majority of microorganisms on holds were most closely related to microbes annotated as being recovered from environmental sources, such as soil, with human skin also representing an important source.”

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Non-human microbiome, June 13

MRSA in cats and dogs, metabolomics on cow rumen, bacteria in soil, sewage and sea water, and how to get rid of invasive species.

Mammal microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.26.20 PMCarriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by healthy companion animals in the US – J.A. Davis – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“In this study, 276 healthy dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were tested for the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of select resistance genes, and typed using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE).”

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.29.33 PMMetabolomics analysis reveals large effect of roughage types on rumen microbial metabolic profile in dairy cows – S. Zhao – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“ Rumen fluid was sampled from each cow through a ruminal cannula at 0630 and 1030 h, and the mixed ruminal fluid from 3 day in each cow was analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference between the ruminal metabolome of the CS and MF groups at both time points. “

Soil microbes

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.30.13 PMDiversity and activity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria in landfill cover soils – F.F. Xia – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“In this study, two landfills with or without landfill gas collection and utilization system were investigated to characterize the role of biotic and abiotic factors affecting diversity and activity of SOB and SRB in the landfill cover soils.”

Water microbes

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.30.55 PMEvaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States – B.R. McMinn – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“Animal faecal samples (>250) from 14 different species were tested for the presence of the three phage groups. GB-124 phages were consistently detected in sewage (10–102 PFU ml−1), but not in animal faeces.”

Letters in applied microbiologyArcobacter spp. isolated from untreated domestic effluent – J.Y. Merga – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus were isolated from samples of raw untreated domestic sewage influent from nine separate wastewater treatment facilities in Cheshire, UK. This is the first report of Arcobacter spp. from sewage in the UK and suggests that Arcobacter spp. may be present in the human community.”

Sunset beachMarine bacteria could help treat human diseases – Mohamed Hassan – The New Zealand Herald

“New Zealand will take part in the first simultaneous sampling of all the world’s oceans as part of “Micro B3 Ocean Sampling Day” on June 20. The project, at 150 sites worldwide, is spearheaded by Germany’s Jacobs University and the University of Oxford in the UK, and will include researchers from the universities of Auckland and Otago.”

zebra musselBacteria could help kill zebra mussels – Associated Press

“State agricultural officials are reviewing a request from the U.S. Geological Survey to experiment with a bacteria to kill zebra mussels in a northern Wisconsin lake.”

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