Human microbiome digest, July 21

Today we have articles on two microbiome pioneers: Rob Knight and Jeffrey Gordon, as well as papers on periodontitis, eczema, Crohn’s disease, and Helicobacter.

General microbiome

The effects of the microbiota on the host immune system – Jacek Karczewski – Autoimmunity

“This review is focused on host–microbiota interactions, specifically on influence of bacterial-derived signals on immune cell function and the mechanisms by which these signals modulate the development and progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.”

Imposition of encapsulated non-indigenous probiotics into intestine may disturbs human core microbiome – Abolfazl Barzegari – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We envision that the lack of survivability of some of the probiotic candidates within such hostile milieu of GIT may negatively affect the coevolving process of bacteria in human host and hence impact the endpoint health promotion goals.”

40 under 40: Rob Knight – Cell

“Some dead scientists who I would have loved to have had the opportunity to work with include Carl Woese, Richard Feynman, Francis Crick, Erwin Chargaff, Sewall Wright, Benjamin Franklin, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Boyle, Eratosthenes, and Lucretius. These lists are intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive; according to my NSF Conflict of Interest form I have written grants or papers with about 750 people, all of whom I admire.”

Jeffrey I. Gordon, M.D., Will Receive Pitt’s Dickson Prize at Science 2014—Sustain It! – University of Pittsburgh

“A scientist who has explored how the tens of trillions of microbes that live in the gastrointestinal tract and their genes influence human physiology, metabolism and nutritional status will receive the University of Pittsburgh’s 2014 Dickson Prize in Medicine.”

Oral microbiome

Quantitative analysis of classical and new putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm: a case–control study – N. N. Al-hebshi – Journal of Periodontal Research

“Pooled subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Taqman q-PCR assays were used to determine the absolute and relative counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, oral Synergistetes and oral TM7s. “

Skin microbiome

Review: Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema – Giuseppe Baviera – BioMed Research International

“This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin.”

Gastric microbiome

Microbial Profile of the Stomach: Comparison between Normal Mucosa and Cancer Tissue in the Same Patient – Incheol Seo – Journal of Bacteriology and Virology

“In this study, we identified differences in the microbial communities between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa by comparing the microbiomes of tissues from the same patients. The clustering analysis results showed different bacterial communities between normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer.”

Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori – Eitaro Aihara – PLOS Pathogens

“Using anesthetized mice in which we have induced microscopic damage to the stomach surface, we find that H. pylori is able to rapidly detect and navigate towards this damage site. Within minutes, bacterial accumulation slows repair of the damage.”

Gut microbiome

Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome
Yue-Dong Gao – BioMed Research International

“we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. “

Analysis of Gut Microbiome and Diet Modification in Patients with Crohn’s Disease [PDF] – Sumathi Sankaran Walters – Symbiosis

“Fecal samples were obtained from patients with Crohn’s disease in a pilot diet crossover trial comparing the effects of a specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) versus a low residue diet (LRD) on the composition and complexity of the gut microbiota and resolution of IBD symptoms. The gut microbiota composition was assessed using a high-density DNA microarray PhyloChip “

Review: Managing the manager: Gut microbes, stem cells and metabolism
M. Serino – Diabetes & Metabolism

“The LPS-sensitive cell types can be seen within bone marrow-derived cells (BMC), which are involved in the development of inflammation in the adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic mice. “

 

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