Human microbiome, August 12, 2014

Oral microbiome in Aboriginals, gut microbiome and probiotics.

Human oral microbiome

Age-dependent changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species/phylotypes in healthy gingiva and inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites – Mangala A. Nadkarni – Clinical Oral Investigations

“The aims of the present study were to establish the age-dependent relationship between sub-gingival profiles of 22 Prevotella species/phylotypes in children, adolescents and adults from an isolated Aboriginal community and, further, to use this information to identify Prevotella species that could serve as microbial risk indicators.”

The effect of propidium monoazide treatment on the measured bacterial composition of clinical samples after the use of a mouthwash – R. A. M. Exterkate – Clinical Oral Investigations

“Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this problem, by preventing the amplification of DNA from membrane-damaged cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PMA when measuring compositional shifts in clinical samples after mouthwash use.”

Human gut microbiome

Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms – Joe Alcock – BioEssays

“We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain”

Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness – Yanet Valdez – Trends in Immunology

“Recent findings suggest novel complex mechanisms by which the microbiome impacts immune cell development and differentiation.”

Current Status and Prospects of Intestinal Microbiome Studies – Dong Soo Han – Intest Res

“Evidences have implicated gut microbes in the development of IBD, but no causative microorganisms have been identified.”

Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial – Gabriella C. van Zanten – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Furthermore, 454 tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. “



Human microbiome, June 11

Bacterial community classes in HMP subjects, oral health in postmenopausal women, and gut epithelial regeneration.

Human microbiome – general

Yanjiao Zhou ExplorationExploration of bacterial community classes in major human habitats – Yanjiao Zhou – Genome Biology

“Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project.” “We identified 2 to 6 community classes for each of the 18 habitats from the HMP healthy cohort by clustering augmented by manual inspection.”

ExploringExploring New Horizons in Microbiome Research – Christoph A. Thaiss, Eran Elinav – Cell Host & Microbe

“Leading scientists in microbiome research met at Lake Titisee, Germany, in April 2014 to discuss the current state of the field, the most urgent and unresolved questions, state-of-the-art technological advances, and new avenues of future research. “

Oral microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 9.35.26 PMPorphyromonas gingivalis Manipulates Complement and TLR Signaling to Uncouple Bacterial Clearance from Inflammation and Promote Dysbiosis – Tomoki Maekawa – Cell Host & Microbe

“As previously reported, P. gingivalis remodels the oral microbiota into a dysbiotic state by exploiting complement. Now we show that in neutrophils P. gingivalis disarms a host-protective TLR2-MyD88 pathway via proteasomal degradation of MyD88, whereas it activates an alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway. “

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.08.26 PMUB receives $4 million NIH grant to study oral health in postmenopausal women – Pat Donovan – University at Buffalo

“These techniques involve Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using culture-independent techniques to identify 16S rRNA genes and allow for a more complete and detailed characterization of the microbial composition and diversity of the human oral cavity, Wactawski-Wende says.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.09.30 PMPregnant Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Preterm Birth – Kimberly Ann Yonkers – JAMA Psychiatry

“Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of 2654 women who were recruited before 17 completed weeks of pregnancy from 137 obstetrical practices in Connecticut and Western Massachusetts.”

Animal models of human microbiota

Screen Shot 2014-06-11 at 10.07.04 PMThe Cytosolic Bacterial Peptidoglycan Sensor Nod2 Affords Stem Cell Protection and Links Microbes to Gut Epithelial Regeneration – Giulia Nigro – Cell Host & Microbe

“We used in vitro cultured organoids of intestinal crypts from mice, reinforced with in vivo experiments, to examine the crypt-microbiota interface.”