Human microbiome digest, August 25, 2014

Oral microbiome in the settings of periodontitis, smoking and antibiotic resistance, respiratory microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis, a decade of molecular papers on vaginal microbiome, and gut bacteria protecting against food allergies.

Oral microbiome

* Microbial Signature Profiles of Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Patients – Talita Gomes Baêta Lourenço – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analyzed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM. “

Smoking decreases structural and functional resilience in the subgingival ecosystem – Vinayak Joshi – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“16S cloning and sequencing was used for bacterial identification and multiplexed bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators.”

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae – Arne Søraas – Journal of Oral Microbiology

“No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. “

Clonality of bacterial consortia in root canals and subjacent gingival crevices – Nipuna B. Parahitiyawa – Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry

“The four niches studied yielded 186 clones representing 54 phylotypes. Clone library comparisons using LIBSHUFF software indicated that each niche was inhabited by a unique flora. “

Respiratory microbiome

* Antimicrobial resistance in the respiratory microbiota of people with cystic fibrosis
Laura J Sherrard – The Lancet

“Strategies to manage antimicrobial resistance consist of new antibiotics or localised delivery of antimicrobial agents, iron sequestration, inhibition of quorum-sensing, and resistome analysis.”

Evidence that Intraspecific Trait Variation among Nasal Bacteria Shapes the Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus – Ben Libberton – Infection and Immunity

“We characterized S. aureus growth inhibition by the culturable bacterial aerobe consortia of 60 nasal microbiomes, and this revealed intraspecific variation in growth inhibition and that inhibitory isolates clustered within communities that were culture negative for S. aureus. “

Gary Huffnagle: rewriting the rules on the lung microbiome – David Holmes – The Lancet

“The ideas being generated by Huffnagle at the moment are all about the lung microbiome and its role in the pathogenesis of everything from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to asthma, and they’re starting to make waves.”

Vaginal microbiome

* The Vaginal Microbiota: What Have We Learned after a Decade of Molecular Characterization? – Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert – PLOS ONE

“We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database … to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions.”

Gut microbiome

Modelling the Emergent Dynamics and Major Metabolites of the Human Colonic Microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“We present here a first attempt at modelling microbial dynamics in the human colon incorporating both uncertainty and adaptation. “

Animal models of human microbiome

Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization – Andrew T. Stefka – PNAS USA

“By selectively colonizing gnotobiotic mice, we demonstrate that the allergy-protective capacity is conferred by a Clostridia-containing microbiota. “

Pregnancy and Birth

Researcher Granted $1 Million to Study Deadly Bacteria Passed to Babies From 25 Percent of Mothers – Infection Control Today

“Narayana Sthanam, PhD, professor of structural biology in the Department of Optometry, has been awarded a four-year, $1 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to further Group B Streptococcus research.”

Microbiome News

* Satire: Study Reveals Microbiome To Be Master-Controller Of All Humanity – The Allium

“Science has already found out that your microbiome at birth decides your taste in clothes and music, whether you are going to be great footballer like David Beckham or a great political leader like Sarah Palin.”

9 questions you were too grossed out to ask about the bacteria living on you – Susannah Locke – Vox

“What researchers have discovered is that our bodies are essentially complex ecosystems of tiny living things. “

Interview with Prof. Yolanda Sanz, project coordinator of My New Gut – Kristina Campbell – Gut Microbiota For Health

“Professor Yolanda Sanz has been appointed MyNewGut’s project coordinator and leads the project’s human intervention trials on the gut microbiome’s ability to metaolise (sic) nutrients and influence energy balance. “

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