Microbiome digest, August 13, 2014

Nose, glycan, butyrate, microbes on plastics, seawater microbial mats, and plants with microbes.

Respiratory microbiome

The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults – Christine M Bassis, Alice L Tang, Vincent B Young and Melissa A Pynnonen – Microbiome

“In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects.”

Gut microbiome

Glycan Degradation (GlyDeR) Analysis Predicts Mammalian Gut Microbiota Abundance and Host Diet-Specific Adaptations – Omer Eilam – mBio

“Based on GlyDeR, we found a clear connection between microbial glycan degradation and human diet, and we suggest a method for the rational design of novel prebiotics.”

Microbial-Derived Butyrate: An Oncometabolite or Tumor-Suppressive Metabolite? -Scott J. Bultman, Christian Jobin – Cell Host & Microbe

“Dietary factors, microbial composition, and metabolism are intimately intertwined into a complex network whose activities influence important intestinal functions”

Review: Collateral Damage: Microbiota-Derived Metabolites and Immune Function in the Antibiotic Era – Christopher A. Lopez – Cell Host & Microbe

“A disruption of gut-associated microbial communities by antibiotic treatment can result in a depletion of microbiota-derived metabolites, thereby enhancing pathogen susceptibility, impairing immune homeostasis, and contributing to the rise of certain chronic inflammatory diseases”

Animal model of microbiome

Differential Modulation by Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii of Host Peripheral Lipid Metabolism and Histone Acetylation in Mouse Gut Organoids
Sabina Lukovac – mBio

“The aim of this study was to characterize effects of the microbiota on host epithelium using a novel ex vivo model based on mouse ileal organoids.”

Plant microbiome

Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors – Thomas R. Williams, Maria L. Marco – mBio

We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce.”

Fundamental Plant Chemicals Rooted in Bacteria – Jenna Iacurci – Nature World News

“A fundamental chemical pathway that all plants use to create the essential amino acid phenylalanine has now been traced to two groups of ancient bacteria, a new study reports.”

Water microbiome

Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters – Sonja Oberbeckmann – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location, and comprised of bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and members of the eukaryotes Bacillariophyceae and Phaeophyceae. “

Molecular Ecology of Microbial Mats – Henk Bolhuis – FEMS Microbial Ecology

“Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring and hypersaline).”

Microbes in the news

Wearable structure of bacteria references antique animal bone corsets

“in terms of the material, it is grown from acetobacter xylinum, a strain of bacteria that produces a microbial cellulose textile as it consumes glucose.”

Bik’s Picks

Google Maps Dives Underwater – Scientific American

Google has taken its ‘street view’ maps to a whole new level—namely, the ocean’s depths. “


Human microbiome digest, August 5, 2014

Lots of microbiome papers today, so I will split it up into three posts. Here you will find papers on human gut, respiratory, oral, and vaginal microbiomes, as well as animal models.

Pregnancy and Birth

Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Sterile Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Patients with Preterm Labor and Intact Membranes – Roberto Romero – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the prevalence and clinical significance of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation and (ii) examine the relationship between amniotic fluid (AF) concentrations of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the interval from amniocentesis to delivery in patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation.”

A Holobiont Birth Narrative: The Epigenetic Transmission of the Human Microbiome –
Scott F. Gilbert – Frontiers in Genetics

“Birth is nothing less than the passage from one set of symbiotic relationships to another.”

Fecal Short Chain Fatty Acids of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants Fed Expressed Breast Milk or Formula – Pourcyrous, M.; Nolan, V.G.; Goodwin, A.; Davis, S.L.; Buddington, R.K. – Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition

“ Ion chromatography was used to measure fecal SCFAs (acetate, formate, propionate, butyrate, and isobutyrate), lactate, and chloride in fresh stool samples collected from 32 preterm infants”

Human mouth microbiome

Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis – M. N. Zakaria – International Endodontic Journal

“DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analyzed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene”

 Respiratory microbiome

A large genomic island allows Neisseria meningitidis to utilize propionic acid, with implications for colonization of the human nasopharynx – Maria Chiara E. Catenazzi, Helen Jones, Iain Wallace, Jacqueline Clifton, James P. J. Chong, Matthew A. Jackson, Sandy Macdonald, James Edwards andJames W. B. Moir – Molecular Microbiology

“Data from classical microbiological and sequence-based microbiome studies provide several lines of supporting evidence that N. meningitidis colonization is correlated with propionic acid generating bacteria, with a strong correlation between prp-containing Neisseria and propionic acid generating bacteria from the genus Porphyromonas, and that this may explain adolescent/adult colonization by N. meningitidis.”

Analysis of Culture-Dependent vs. Culture-Independent Techniques for the Identification of Bacteria in Clinically-Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid – Robert P. Dickson – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“We analyzed forty six clinically-obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. “

Vaginal microbiome

Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry – Jennifer M. Fettweis – Microbiology

“we performed 16S rRNA gene survey to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1,268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. Our results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences.”

Human gut microbiome

Unraveling the mechanisms underlying associations between the microbiome and gastrointestinal malignancies – Tiffany L. Weir – Translational Gastrointestinal Cancer

“While many reviews have focused on research identifying microbial signatures associated with malignancies, including changes in diversity or evenness of GI microbial communities and depletion or overrepresentation of particular bacterial groups; this comprehensive review emphasizes research that explores the cause rather than effects of microbe-malignancy relationships.”

Animal models of human microbiome

Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice – Merete Ellekilde, Ellika Selfjord, Christian S. Larsen, Maja Jakesevic, Ida Rune, Britt Tranberg, Finn K. Vogensen, Dennis S. Nielsen, Martin I. Bahl, Tine R. Licht, Axel K. Hansen & Camilla H. F. Hansen – Nature Scientific Reports

“To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. “

Postnatal Prebiotic Fiber Intake in Offspring Exposed to Gestational Protein Restriction Has Sex-Specific Effects on Insulin Resistance and Intestinal Permeability in Rats – Megan C. Hallam and Raylene A. Reimer – Journal of Nutrition

“At 24 wk of age, glucose tolerance, body composition, satiety hormones, gut microbiota, and markers of intestinal permeability were measured in the offspring. “

A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal inflammation in association with increased Akkermansia spp. population in the gut microbiota of mice – Fernando F Anhê – Gut

CE exerts beneficial metabolic effects through improving HFHS diet-induced features of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a proportional increase in Akkermansia spp. population.”