General microbiology and science, August 26, 2014

Here, we have CRISPRs, phages, marine metagenomics, a universal bacterial/archaeal primer (The One?), single-cell genomics, light and bacteria, and Bik’s Picks.

Phages and CRISPRs

Abundant and Diverse Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Spacers in Clostridium difficile Strains and Prophages Target Multiple Phage Types within This Pathogen – Katherine R. Hargreaves – mBio

“We detected multiple matches between spacers and regions in 31 C. difficile phage and prophage genomes”

Evolutionary consequences of intra-patient phage predation on microbial populations
Kimberley D Seed – eLife

“Here, we show that predatory interactions of a phage with an important environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, can modulate the evolutionary trajectory of this pathogen during the natural course of infection within individual patients.”

Metagenomics

* Marine metagenomics, a valuable tool for enzymes and bioactive compounds discovery
Rosalba Barone – Frontiers in Marine Science

“We report examples of several hydrolytic enzymes and natural products isolated by functional sequenced-based and function- screening strategies assisted by new high-throughput DNA sequencing technology and recent bioinformatics tools.”

Bioinformatics

Profile Hidden Markov Models for the Detection of Viruses within Metagenomic Sequence Data – Peter Skewes-Cox – PLOS ONE

“Here, we constructed HMMER3-compatible profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) from all the virally annotated proteins in RefSeq in an automated fashion using a custom-built bioinformatic pipeline. “

 

Techniques

I hope they developed two primers, not just one! Development of a Prokaryotic Universal Primer for Simultaneous Analysis of Bacteria and Archaea Using Next-Generation Sequencing – Shunsuke Takahashi – PLOS ONE

“Here, we designed a universal primer based on the V3-V4 hypervariable region of prokaryotic 16S rDNA for the simultaneous detection of Bacteria and Archaea in fecal samples from crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large white×Duroc) using an Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencer.”

A Quantitative Comparison of Single-Cell Whole Genome Amplification Methods – Charles F. A. de Bourcy – PLOS ONE

“Here, we compare three state-of-the-art methods on both bulk and single-cell samples of E. coli DNA: Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA), Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC), and the PicoPLEX single-cell WGA kit (NEB-WGA). “

This abstract is so vague, I am not sure where to file this under – A Robust and Adaptable High Throughput Screening Method to Study Host-Microbiota Interactions in the Human Intestine – Tomas de Wouters – PLOS ONE

“In this study, we developed a robust and reproducible methodology to combine these two biological systems for high throughput application”

LC Sciences and Norgen Biotek will be conducting a free informational webinar describing 16S rRNA Sequencing and presenting a few application examples.

“If you are interested in attending the webinar, simply reply to news@lcsciences.com and we would be happy to send the webinar details.”

More microbiology

The Immune System in Children with Malnutrition — A Systematic Review
Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter – PLOS ONE

“A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. “

Photodynamic Therapy Using Systemic Administration of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and a 410-nm Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Ulcers in Mice – Kuniyuki Morimoto – PLOS ONE

“5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy accelerated wound healing and decreased bacterial counts on ulcer surfaces; in contrast, vancomycin treatment did not accelerate wound healing.”

Light Scattering Sensor for Direct Identification of Colonies of Escherichia coli Serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 – Yanjie Tang- PLOS ONE

“SMAC was chosen for exhaustive scatter image library development, and 36 additional strains of O157:H7 and 11 non-O157 serovars were examined, with each serogroup producing unique differential scatter patterns.”

Science and publishing

Protecting human research participants in the age of big data – Susan T. Fiskea, and Robert M. Hauser – PNAS USA

“IRB review does not apply to Facebook and other private enterprises, yet they generate data that can benefit humanity”

Bik’s Picks

Magpies don’t like shiny things – Sarah Zielinski – Science News

“Magpies deserve our apology. Apparently humans have been unnecessarily maligning the birds for centuries. “

Richard III ate like a king before biting the dust – Bruce Bower – Science News

“Well-known royal’s brief reign included a sudden shift to fancy food and drink”

What type of researcher are you? Take the Quiz – Roche Life Science

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Non-human microbiome, June 13

MRSA in cats and dogs, metabolomics on cow rumen, bacteria in soil, sewage and sea water, and how to get rid of invasive species.

Mammal microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.26.20 PMCarriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by healthy companion animals in the US – J.A. Davis – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“In this study, 276 healthy dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were tested for the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of select resistance genes, and typed using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE).”

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.29.33 PMMetabolomics analysis reveals large effect of roughage types on rumen microbial metabolic profile in dairy cows – S. Zhao – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“ Rumen fluid was sampled from each cow through a ruminal cannula at 0630 and 1030 h, and the mixed ruminal fluid from 3 day in each cow was analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference between the ruminal metabolome of the CS and MF groups at both time points. “

Soil microbes

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.30.13 PMDiversity and activity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria in landfill cover soils – F.F. Xia – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“In this study, two landfills with or without landfill gas collection and utilization system were investigated to characterize the role of biotic and abiotic factors affecting diversity and activity of SOB and SRB in the landfill cover soils.”

Water microbes

Screen Shot 2014-06-13 at 11.30.55 PMEvaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States – B.R. McMinn – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“Animal faecal samples (>250) from 14 different species were tested for the presence of the three phage groups. GB-124 phages were consistently detected in sewage (10–102 PFU ml−1), but not in animal faeces.”

Letters in applied microbiologyArcobacter spp. isolated from untreated domestic effluent – J.Y. Merga – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus were isolated from samples of raw untreated domestic sewage influent from nine separate wastewater treatment facilities in Cheshire, UK. This is the first report of Arcobacter spp. from sewage in the UK and suggests that Arcobacter spp. may be present in the human community.”

Sunset beachMarine bacteria could help treat human diseases – Mohamed Hassan – The New Zealand Herald

“New Zealand will take part in the first simultaneous sampling of all the world’s oceans as part of “Micro B3 Ocean Sampling Day” on June 20. The project, at 150 sites worldwide, is spearheaded by Germany’s Jacobs University and the University of Oxford in the UK, and will include researchers from the universities of Auckland and Otago.”

zebra musselBacteria could help kill zebra mussels – Associated Press

“State agricultural officials are reviewing a request from the U.S. Geological Survey to experiment with a bacteria to kill zebra mussels in a northern Wisconsin lake.”

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