Human microbiome, June 12

Today digest features the comparison of the HMP vs MetaHIT extraction protocols, microbiota and food consumption, mites in your skin, and a TIME article with a critical view.

Oral microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-12 at 9.59.53 PMGum disease bacteria selectively disarm immune system, study finds – Medical express

“In a new study, University of Pennsylvania researchers show that bacteria responsible for many cases of periodontitis cause this imbalance, known as dysbiosis, with a sophisticated, two-prong manipulation of the human immune system.”

Gut microbiome

yin yangReview: The Yin and Yang of Bacterial Resilience in the Human Gut Microbiota – Molly K. Gibson – Journal of Molecular Biology

“Here we review the mechanisms by which the host modulates the gut community composition during health and disease, and discuss prospects for antibiotic and probiotic therapy for restoration of a healthy intestinal community following disruption.”

obese women fructInulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women – Nuria Salazar – Clinical Nutrition

“ITF consumption selectively modulates Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases fecal SCFA concentration in obese women. ITF could lessen metabolic risk factors associated with higher fecal SCFA concentration in obese individuals.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-12 at 8.36.07 PMGlossary of the Gut Microbiome – Compiled by The American College of Gastroenterology


Skin microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-12 at 9.44.13 PMThese mites live on your face and come out to have sex at night – Joseph Stromberg – Vox

“Right now, there are thousands of mites on your face. They’re microscopic, but closely related to spiders and ticks. And despite your reaction to hearing this news, there’s absolutely nothing wrong with you.”

Animal models of human microbiome and disease

vitkQuantification of phylloquinone and menaquinones in feces, serum, and food by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry – J. Philip Karl – Journal of Chromatography B

“We developed a novel method employing high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI-MS) for simultaneous quantification of 11 vitamin K vitamers that can be applied in feces, serum and food.”

Microbial Bioreactors

vegetalBeneficial effects of fermented vegetal beverages on human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in a simulator – Fernanda Bianchi – Food Research International

“To monitor the effects on microbial community composition, plate counts on specific growth media and a PCR-DGGE analysis were performed on samples from all colon compartments – ascending, transverse and descending.”

Microbiome conference

Screen Shot 2014-06-12 at 8.42.07 PMKenneth Rainin Foundation’s 2014 Innovations Symposium to Feature Virus Hunters and Gut Explorers – Taming the Microbiome – July 15 – 16, 2014, San Francisco.

“This year’s dynamic keynote speakers each bring a unique perspective on the human microbiome.”

Microbiome in the Press

timeExercise Helps Your Gut Bacteria: Amazing, Overblown, or Plain Incorrect? – Alexandra Sifferlin – Time

“Though he sees great promise in researching the microbiome, Eisen says it irks him when studies are blown out of portion both by scientists and the press.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-12 at 9.56.29 PMHere’s bacteria you ought to be eating – Craig Sailor – The Olympian

“Blake is a big proponent of raw, living fermented foods. The probiotic or friendly bacteria in the food provides nutrients and vitamins. “They also produce digestive enzymes that help us get more out of our food,” she said.”

breadWhite Bread May Encourage Growth Of ‘Good’ Bacteria – Jaleesa Baulkman – University Herald (mentions a study featured here that was recently published in American Chemical Society’s Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.)

“Researchers said their most novel finding was that white bread boosted Lactobacillus, a group of beneficial bacteria. The results were surprising because white bread is a much-maligned food. “

Techniques: DNA extraction from stool

Choice of bacterial DNA extraction method from fecal material influences community structure as evaluated by metagenomic analysis – Agata Wesolowska-Andersen – Microbiome

“We observed significant differences in distribution of bacterial taxa depending on the method. While eukaryotic DNA was most efficiently extracted by the MetaHIT protocol, DNA from bacteria within the Bacteroidetes phylum was most efficiently extracted by the HMP protocol.”


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