March 23, 2020

In today’s digest, review on biliary tract microbiome, effect of disinfection on water microbiome, resveratrol on adipose tissue browning via gut microbiome modelling and influence of livestock farm environment on human gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome.

Hope all readers are staying safe at home!

General microbiome

Intestinal microbiota and its association with colon cancer and red/processed meat consumption – Nadine Abu‐Ghazaleh – Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Is it time to consider gut microbiome readouts for precision diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic liver disease? – Gail A.M. Cresci – Hepatology

Biliary tract microbiota: a new kid on the block of liver diseases? – Nicoletti A – European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences

Human microbiome

Characteristics of the urinary microbiome in kidney stone patients with hypertension – Fengping Liu – Journal of Translational Medicine

Pregnancy associates with alterations to the host and microbial proteome in vaginal mucosa – Christina Farr Zuend – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

Prebiotics inhibit proteolysis by gut bacteria in a host diet-dependent manner: a three stage continuous in vitro gut model experiment – Xuedan Wang – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Animal experiments

Resveratrol enhances brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in part by regulating bile acid metabolism via gut microbiota remodeling – Suocheng Hui – International Journal of Obesity

Environmental remodeling of human gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome in livestock farms – Jian Sun – Nature Communications

Effects of the dietary fibre inulin and Trichuris suis products on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages – Laura J. Myhill – Molecular Immunology

Deoxycholic Acid-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Disrupts Bile Acid Enterohepatic Circulation and Promotes Intestinal Inflammation – Mengque Xu – Digestive Diseases and Sciences

Commensal Bacteria Impact a Protozoan’s Integration into Murine Gut Microbiota in a Dietary Nutrient-dependent Manner – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Plant, root and soil microbiome

Rhizosphere fungal communities of wild and cultivated soybeans grown in three different soil suspensions – Chunling Chang – Applied Soil Ecology

Straw decreased N2O emissions from flooded paddy soils via altering denitrifying bacterial community compositions and soil organic carbon fractions – Ning Wang – FEMS Microbial Ecology

Water microbiome

Microbial communities from subglacial water of naled ice bodies in the forefield of Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard – Sławomir Sułowicz – Science of the Total Environment

Disinfection exhibits systematic impacts on the drinking water microbiome – Zihan Dai – Microbiome

Microbial diversity in deep subsurface hot brines of the North West Poland: from a community structure to isolate characteristics – Agnieszka Kalwasińska – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Non microbiology picks

Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs – Sangeun Jeon – BioRxiv

Comparative Pathogenesis Of COVID-19, MERS And SARS In A Non-Human Primate Model – Barry Rockx – BioRxiv

March 16, 2020

To all the work-from-home researchers (like me!), today’s digest covers microbiome in memory recognition, enteric neuropathy and neurodevelopmental disorder in rodent models. Gut microbiome in cardiovascular disease, a dual mechanism antibiotic and shifts in human gut microbiome and metabolome following gastric bypass. An important preprint that Covid-19 could not induce reinfection in infected rhesus macaques and that Ibuprofen may aggravate Covid-19 infection.

General microbiome

Gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease: opportunities and challenges – Negin Kazemian – Microbiome

Human microbiome
Pharmacomicrobiomics in inflammatory arthritis: gut microbiome as modulator of therapeutic response – Jose U. Scher – Nature Reviews Rheumatology

Long-term metal exposure changes gut microbiota of residents surrounding a mining and smelting area – Mengmeng Shao – Scientific Reports

Temporospatial shifts in the human gut microbiome and metabolome after gastric bypass surgery – Zehra Esra Ilhan – NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

Animal experiments

Habitat and seasonality shape the structure of tench (Tinca tinca L.) gut microbiome – Tomasz Dulski – Scientific Reports

Microecological Koch’s postulates reveal that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis contributes to shrimp white feces syndrome – Zhijian Huang – Microbiome

Early-life microbial intervention reduces colitis risk promoted by antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis – Jun Miyoshi – BioRxiv

Gut microbiota manipulation during the prepubertal period shapes behavioral abnormalities in a mouse neurodevelopmental disorder model – Justin M. Saunders – Scientific Reports

Minocycline-induced microbiome alterations predict cafeteria diet-induced spatial recognition memory impairments in rats – Sarah-Jane Leigh – Translational Psychiatry

A purified membrane protein from Akkermansia muciniphila or the pasteurised bacterium blunts colitis associated tumourigenesis by modulation of CD8+ T cells in mice – Lijuan Wang – Gut

PM2.5 exposure perturbs lung microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice – Jingli Li – Science of The Total Environment

High‐fat diet–induced alterations to gut microbiota and gut‐derived lipoteichoic acid contributes to the development of enteric neuropathy – Yvonne Nyavor – Neurogastroenterology and Motility

Plant, root and soil microbiome

Complementary Metagenomic Approaches Improve Reconstruction of Microbial Diversity in a Forest Soil – L. V. Alteio – mSystems

Impact of plants on the diversity and activity of methylotrophs in soil – Michael C. Macey – Microbiome

Conserved bacterial genomes from two geographically distinct peritidal stromatolite formations shed light on potential functional guilds – Samantha C. Waterworth – BioRxiv

Techniques

A framework for assessing 16S rRNA marker-gene survey data analysis methods using mixtures – Nathan D. Olson – Microbiome

Antibiotic resistance

A dual-mechanism antibiotic targets Gram-negative bacteria and avoids drug resistance – James K. Martin – BioRxiv

Non microbiology picks

Reinfection could not occur in SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques – Linlin Bao – BioRxiv

Anti-inflammatories may aggravate Covid-19, France advises – The Guardian

Antibiotic resistance- can reducing outpatient prescription help?

Antibiotic resistance is increasing at a rapid rate making pathogens and other bacterial species resistant to currently available antibiotics. Its impact is already visible globally and clock is ticking faster than ever pushing scientists all over the world to develop better antibiotics with higher specificity (only!) for pathogens. Antibiotic consumption is directly related to antibiotic resistance and policies across the continents are underway to control the consumption and prescription of antibiotics.

A recent article in elife introduces the problem of unnecessary antibiotic use and provides data to avert it.

Inappropriate antibiotic use leads to increased risk of adverse events, disruption of colonization resistance and other benefits of the microbial flora, and bystander selection for antibiotic resistance, with little to no health gains for the patient.”

To address the problem, Christine et al. used publically available data (NAMCS/NHAMCS) and mathematical models to find what would happen if antibiotic consumption is averted in hypothetical scenarios.

What they did?
The analysis included sixteen antibiotics that are frequently prescribed in the outpatient setting and nine potentially pathogenic bacterial species that are commonly carried in the normal human microbiome. For each antibiotic-species pair, they estimated the proportion of antibiotic exposures experienced by that species that could be averted under four hypothetical scenarios.

1) Eliminate unnecessary antibiotic use across all outpatient conditions.
2) Eliminate all antibiotic use for outpatient respiratory conditions for which antibiotics are not indicated.
3) Eliminate all antibiotic use for acute sinusitis.
4) Prescribe nitrofurantoin* for all cases of cystitis in women.”

“*Nitrofurantoin- a recommended first-line therapy with good potency against common uropathogens, low levels of resistance, and decreased risk of collateral damage to the intestinal microbiome”

Results

Picture1

Heatmaps showing the estimated percentage of species exposures to each antibiotic or antibiotic class that could be averted if A: unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions across all outpatient conditions, B: all antibiotic use for outpatient respiratory conditions for which antibiotics are not indicated, C: all antibiotic use for acute sinusitis, or D: non-nitrofurantoin treatment of cystitis in women was eliminated. Drug class results include prescriptions of all antibiotics in that class, as identified by the Lexicon Plus classification system.
Abbreviations: Antibiotics (y-axis): AMX-CLAV=amoxicillin-clavulanate,, MACR/LINC=macrolides/lincosamides, TMP-SMX=sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim;

Organisms (x-axis): EC=E. coli, HI=H. influenzae, KP=K. pneumoniae, MC=M. catarrhalis, PA=P. aeruginosa, SA=S. aureus, SAg=S. agalactiae, SP=S. pneumoniae, SPy=S. pyogenes; PY=person-years


The darker shades in panel A (scenario 1) clearly indicated that “elimination of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions across all outpatient conditions would prevent 6 to 48% (IQR: 17 to 31%) of antibiotic-species exposures. If all unnecessary antibiotic use could be prevented, over 30% of exposures to amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and doxycycline across most potential pathogens of interest could be averted.

In panel D (scenario 4), they found that prescribing nitrofurantoin not only averted antibiotic exposure in non-causative bacterial species (bystanders) but also in causative species for cystitis in women.
Overall, 27% of ciprofloxacin use is associated with acute cystitis in women. Organisms that are not causative pathogens of cystitis have proportions of avertable exposures close to or less than 27%, but a substantially higher proportion of exposures could be averted among causative pathogens – 33%, 36%, and 44% of ciprofloxacin exposures to E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

The study addresses the limitations with regard to data availability and reporting in public database. Authors are cautious and point out,

It is important to note that the reduction in antibiotic exposures estimated here does not translate to the same reduction in the prevalence of resistance or in the morbidity and mortality attributable to resistance. Additionally, in this analysis, we give each exposure equal weight. However, the selective pressure imposed by a single exposure depends on a number of variables, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, distribution of bacteria across body sites, and bacterial population size. For example, we might expect that the probability of resistance scales with population size, and thus that an exposure received by an individual with higher bacterial load will have a larger impact on resistance.

Overall, this study indeed provides evidence that “improved prescription of antibiotics has the potential to prevent antibiotic exposure experienced by bacterial species throughout microbiome.

Human microbiota associated-rodent models

I came across brilliant review by Jens Walter et al. that resonates with my thoughts in microbiome field. I also work in the same field doing similar experiments, but sometimes it is better to stop and look back what you have been doing. This review has discussed some important points on the transmissibility of human diseases in human microbiota-associated mouse models. They acknowledge the importance of human microbiota-associated mouse models as valuable resource in the microbiome field. However, through systematic review they demonstrate that according to current literature it is easily possible to transfer (any!) human disease in mice through microbiota transplant. The inflated positivity and hype around these experiments must be criticized. Most importantly, they talk about the relevance of negative transplant studies, which are seldom published, and urge to use rigorous statistics to improve the data interpretation. Following are some excerpts from the review, though reading full review is highly recommended.

The problem with the concept:

“Because a “normal” or “healthy” microbiome has not been defined yet, we use the term dysbiosis to refer solely to an altered microbiome associated with a specific disease or condition as compared to a control. Whether such “dysbiotic” microbiomes are the cause or consequence of disease, or whether both are caused by a third factor, is, in most instances, unproven.”

“There are two well-documented diseases in the microbiome field that link a microbial biomarker with causation in disease: Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulceration and gastric cancer, and Clostridium (or Clostridioides) difficile infection-associated diarrhea. However, causal inferences between complex microbiomes and other inflammatory, metabolic, neoplastic, and neuro-behavioral disorders have been neither compelling nor conclusive.”

“A substantial proportion of the taxa that comprise the human gut microbiome fail to colonize in the recipient animals. Most importantly, the ecological factors (such as diet, lifestyle, disease phenotype, and human genotype) that have driven the dysbiosis in humans in the first place are absent in the recipient rodents, making it unlikely that disease-associated alterations are replicated. Taxa that colonize at sufficient levels may not engage in the EVOLUTIONARY routed host-microbe interactions that they establish with their native host.”

“Consider H. pylori and C. difficile, two members of the human microbiome with established causality in human disease, neither of which exhibit sufficient colonization to cause reliable pathology in conventional murine models.”

Results from systematic review:

“Of 38 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, all but two (36/38; 95%) concluded that fecal transfer from diseased donors resulted in at least one phenotype of the human disease being greater in the recipient mice when compared with transfers from healthy donors.”

Of all the studies, 63% (24/38) of the studies tested for a dysbiosis in the original human donor samples, and only 29% (11/38) confirmed that at least some aspect (reduced diversity, ecosystem processes/services, loss or bloom of specific taxa, or shifts in metabolic capacity) of the “human dysbiosis” was replicated in the recipient animals. Consequently, the majority of studies did not attempt to identify the “causal component” of the microbiome. Only a few studies (34%; 13/38) identified potential underlying mechanisms linking the dysbiotic microbiome with disease.”

Issues with statistics 

“Often, a small number (1–5) of human donors is used per human disease and control group, and these “donor microbiomes” are then replicated in a larger number of individual mice, which are then often used for statistical inference.”

“The result is “pseudoreplication,” which artificially inflates the sample size, the chance for “false positive” findings, and the evidence for a scientific claim. This problem is amplified if donor samples are pooled before the inoculation of groups of rodents, which is common practice for both the “diseased” and healthy control samples. We found that 84% (32/38) of the published studies on HMA murine models used the individual animals as the statistical inference, although animal numbers were much higher than the number of human donors and therefore inflated. Only 16% of studies (6/38) were clear in their use of the individual human donor samples as the “N” for statistical inferences or used the same number of rodents as donors.”

“When virtually all reports are positive, as in our systematic review, the greater the doubt will be and the more justified the scrutiny should be.”

Suggestions for alternative experimental approach

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Why is it important to change?

“Specifically, the correction of altered microbiomes, be it by FMT, live biotherapeutics, or microbial products, will be beneficial only if the alterations are causal or contributory to the disease rather than a bystander response. Causal claims in the microbiome field are often overstated and disproportional to the experimental evidence from which they are derived, and it has become difficult to identify a disease state in which the microbiome has not been implicated in the scientific literature, a notion amplified in the popular press.”

“Sadly, most researchers and reviewers in the microbiome field, and almost all editors of high-impact journals, seem to regard acceptance of the null hypothesis as a failure. As with all scientific endeavor, our field would be served better if editorial policies of higher tier journals and guidelines of funding agencies discouraged any discrimination against negative data, replications, validations of experimental designs, and statistical analyses.”

January 27, 2020

In today’s Monday morning post – establishing causality for gut microbiome using human microbiota associated rodents, gut microbiota profiling in pregnant women after bariatric surgery, proteomics changes in bacteria, discovery of core microbiome of common bean rhizosphere and many more.

General Microbiome

Establishing or Exaggerating Causality for the Gut Microbiome: Lessons from Human Microbiota-Associated Rodents – Jens Walter – Cell

Microbial Genomics and Metagenomics in India: Explorations and Perspectives– Princy Hira – Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy

Human Microbiome

Longitudinal metabolic and gut bacterial profiling of pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery – Kiana Ashley West – Gut

Identifying determinants of bacterial fitness in a model of human gut microbial succession – Lihui Feng – PNAS

16S rDNA microbiome composition pattern analysis as a diagnostic biomarker for biliary tract cancer – Huisong Lee – World Journal of Surgical Oncology

Faecal microbiota transplantations and urinary tract infections – Jean Christophe Lagier – Lancet

Animal Microbiome

Influences of a Prolific Gut Fungus (Zancudomyces culisetae) on Larval and Adult Mosquito (Aedes aegypti)-Associated Microbiota – Jonas Frankel-Bricker – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Functional dynamics of bacterial species in the mouse gut microbiome revealed by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses – Youn Wook Chung – PlosOne

Early life microbiome perturbation alters pulmonary responses to ozone in male mice – Traci A. Brown – Physiological Reports

Evolution and maintenance of microbe-mediated protection under occasional pathogen attack – Anke Kloock – BioRxiv

Plant, root and soil microbiome

Community sequencing on a natural experiment reveals little influence of host species and timing but a strong influence of compartment on the composition of root endophytes in three annual Brassicaceae – Jose G Macia-Vicente – BioRxiv

Discovery of a spatially and temporally persistent core microbiome of the common bean rhizosphere – Nejc Stopnisek – BioRxiv

Resident and phytometer plants host comparable rhizosphere fungal communities in managed grassland ecosystems – Ricardo Schöps – Scientific Reports

Evaluation of fatty acid derivatives in the remediation of aged PAH-contaminated soil and microbial community and degradation gene response – Qingling Wang – Chemosphere

Techniques

Proteomic changes in bacteria caused by exposure to environmental conditions can be detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization – Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) Mass Spectrometry – Denise Chac – BioRxiv

Probiotics, prebiotics

Beneficial bile acid metabolism from Lactobacillus plantarum of food origin – Roberta Prete – Scientific Reports

Microbes in the news

Could a kid’s microbiome alter their behaviour? – Health24

Microbiome Therapeutics Market Report Forecast by Capital Investment, Industry Outlook, Opportunities & Trends 2024 – Fusion Science Academy

January 10, 2020

In today’s weekend post- maternal antibodies targeting microbiota protect mice from neonatal infection, exercise improves gestational diabetes in rodent models, bacterial signature in NAFLD and TMAO as negative predictor of human embryo quality. Happy reading and a nice weekend!

General microbiome

Adolescence and aging: impact of adolescence inflammatory stress and microbiota alterations on brain development, aging and neurodegeneration – Nour Yahfoufi – The Journal of Geronotology

Preclinical and clinical relevance of probiotics and synbiotics in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review – Bruna C.S. Cruz – Nutrition Reviews

Gut microbiota: a new piece in understanding hepatocarcinogenesis – An Zhou – Cancer Letters

Gut Microbiota, Diet, and Chronic Diseases: The Role Played by Oxidative Stress – Elisardo C. Vasquez – Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

New insights on the colonization of the human gut by health-promoting bacteria – Sinead T. Morrin – Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Human microbiome

Salivary microbiota and inflammation‐related proteins in patients with psoriasis – Daniel Belstrøm – Oral Diseases

Oral butyrate does not affect innate immunity and islet autoimmunity in individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial – Pieter F. de Groot – Diabetologia

Fusobacterium nucleatum in the colorectum, and its association with cancer risk and survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis – Christian Gethings-Behncke – Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Potential impact of removing metronidazole from treatment armamentarium of mild acute Clostridioides difficile infection – Shani Zilberman-Itskovich – Future Medicine

Intrahepatic bacterial metataxonomic signature in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Silvia Sookoian – Gut

Microbial imbalance in inflammatory bowel disease patients at different taxonomic levels – Mohammad Tauqeer Alam – Gut Pathogens

Early life microbiota

Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Gut Microbiota of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Possible Predictors of the Disease – Alexey S. Kovtun – Microbial Drug Resistance

Trimethylamine-N-oxide is present in human follicular fluid and is a negative predictor of embryo quality – R.A.Nagy – Human Reproduction

Animal experiments

Microbiota-targeted maternal antibodies protect neonates from enteric infection – Wen Zheng – Nature

Characterization of metabolic and inflammatory profiles of transition dairy cows fed an energy-restricted diet – Giulia Esposito – Journal of Animal Science

Microbiota dependent production of butyrate is required for the bone anabolic activity of PTH – Jau-Yi Li – Journal of Clinical Investigation

Betaine addition as a potent ruminal fermentation modulator under hyperthermal and hyperosmotic conditions in vitro – Mubarik Mahmood – Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Investigating temporal microbial dynamics in the rumen of beef calves raised on two farms during early life – Eóin O’Hara – FEMS Microbial Ecology

Dietary Xanthan Gum Alters Antibiotic Efficacy against the Murine Gut Microbiota and Attenuates Clostridioides difficile Colonization – Matthew K. Schnizlein – mSphere

Post‐natal co‐development of the microbiota and gut barrier function follows different paths in the small and large intestine in piglets – Alexis Pierre Arnaud – Faseb Journal

Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extract improves insulin resistance by regulating gut microbiota composition – Yangyang Liu – Faseb Journal

Exercise improves metabolic function and alters the microbiome in rats with gestational diabetes – Dayana Mahizir – Faseb Journal

Microbial reconstitution reverses early female puberty induced by maternal high-fat diet during lactation – Mengjie Wang – Endocrinology

Fecal microbiota as a noninvasive biomarker to predict the tissue iron accumulation in intestine epithelial cells and liver – Bingdong Liu – Faseb Journal

Techniques

Systematic Analysis of Impact of Sampling Regions and Storage Methods on Fecal Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Profiles – Yali Liang – mSphere

December 6, 2019

Today’s post is about metabolic networks of the human gut microbiota with host, how aging affects microbial world in humans, microbiome in honey bee and lifestyle dependent gut microbiota gradients in diverse Indian population. Have a nice weekend!

General microbiome

Review: Metabolic networks of the human gut microbiota – Susannah Selber-Hnatiw – Microbiology

Review: Cannabinoids and the Microbiota‐Gut‐Brain‐Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders – Hollis C. Karoly – Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research

Review: The Unexplored World of Human Virome, Mycobiome, and Archaeome in Aging – Oscar Salvador Barrera-Vázquez – Journal of Gerontology

Review: Nanotechnology intervention of the microbiome for cancer therapy – Wantong Song – Nature Nanotechnology

Commentary: Gut microbiome influences exercise response – Claire Greenhill – Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Human microbiome

Bacterial DNA induces the formation of heat-resistant disease-associated proteins in human plasma – Victor Tetz – Scientific Reports

Lifestyle induced microbial gradients: An Indian perspective – Rashmi Singh – Frontiers in Microbiology

Microbiota, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: protocol of an observational study – Benedetta M. Motta – Journal of Translational Medicine

Antibiotic exposure and the risk of colorectal adenoma and carcinoma: systematic review and meta‐analysis of observational studies – Leigh N. Sanyaolu – Colorectal Disease

Higher frequency of vertebrate‐infecting viruses in the gut of infants born to mothers with type 1 diabetes – Ki Wook Kim – Pediatric Diabetes

Animal experiments

Integrative analysis of the gut microbiota and metabolome in rats treated with rice straw biochar by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and LC/MS-based metabolomics – Jie Han – Scientific Reports

Division of labor in honey bee gut microbiota for plant polysaccharide digestion – Hao Zheng – PNAS

The effect of carbohydrate sources: Sucrose, invert sugar and components of mānuka honey, on core bacteria in the digestive tract of adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) – Michelle A. Taylor – PlosOne

Seven-day Green Tea Supplementation Revamps Gut Microbiome and Caecum/Skin Metabolome in Mice from Stress – Eun Sung Jung – Scientific Reports

Cattle intestinal microbiota shifts following Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccination and colonization travel – Raies A. Mir – PlosOne

Characterization of the cecal microbiome composition of Wenchang chickens before and after fattening – Zhen Tan – PlosOne

SOD1 deficiency alters gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolites in mice – Haruka Sagi – Experimental Gerontology

Plant, soil, root microbiome

Host-mediated microbiome engineering (HMME) of drought tolerance in the wheat rhizosphere – Michael D. Jochum – PlosOne

Arctic tundra soil bacterial communities active at subzero temperatures detected by stable isotope probing – Preshita S. Gadkari – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Techniques

Comparison of extraction methods for recovering ancient microbial DNA from paleofeces – Richard W. Hagan – American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Microbes in the news

How Microbiomes Affect Fear – Quanta Magazine

Rainforest Dwellers and Urbanites Have Consistently Different Microbiomes – Scientific American

Human Microbiome Modulators Market is Furbishing worldwide with Bayer, BioGaia, Chr. Hansen Holding, DowDuPont – News Description