Human microbiome, July 7

Phages and CRISPRs in human mouth, new metagenomes from MetaHit, and vaginal microbiota.

General microbiome

Journal Nurse PractionersReview: An Overview of the Microbiome and the Effects of Antibiotics – Hillary Taggart – The Journal for Nurse Practitioners

“This review provides a basic introduction of what the microbiome is and how it plays a role in obesity, gastrointestinal, immune, and mental health, including a brief mention of implications for the pediatric population.”

Oral microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.54PM, Jul 07Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque – Mayuri Naidu (with David Pride) – BMC Microbiology

“We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type.”

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.45PM, Jul 07 1An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome – Junhua Li – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we combined 249 newly sequenced samples of the Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHit) project with 1,018 previously sequenced samples to create a cohort from three continents that is at least threefold larger than cohorts used for previous gene catalogs. “

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.45PM, Jul 07Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes – H Bjørn Nielsen (and 142 other authors) – Nature Biotechnology

“Here we present a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences.”

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.47PM, Jul 07Commensal microbial regulation of natural killer T cells at the frontiers of the mucosal immune system – Sebastian Zeissig, Richard S. Blumberg – FEBS Letters

“Here, we outline the mechanisms of bidirectional cross-talk between the microbiota and CD1d-restricted NKT cells and discuss how a perturbation of these processes can contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated disorders at mucosal surfaces.”

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.48PM, Jul 07Review/Book chapter Gastrointestinal microbiota – Katherine Stephens – Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Gastroenterology

“This chapter summarizes the functions of the human gastrointestinal tract. A main function of the GI microbiota is modulation of the immune system. The chapter focues on the factors influencing composition of the microbiota.”

Pathogens journalPerturbation of the Human Microbiome as a Contributor to Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Bayan Missaghi – Pathogens

“This review presents an outline of the loss of a normal microbiome as an etiology of immune dysregulation and IBD pathogenesis initiation. “

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.49PM, Jul 07 137 People Want to Peer Inside Your Poop…You Know, for Science – Angus Chen – Discover Magazine

“Rob Knight, a microbiologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and his colleagues want poop from every person in America.”

Mediterranean Diet and Health: Food Effects on Gut Microbiota and Disease Control
Federica Del Chierico – International Journal of Molecular Sciences

“For this purpose, we present a study proposal relying on the generation of individual gut microbiota maps from MD-aware children/adolescents. “

Respiratory microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 02.02PM, Jul 07Evidence that intraspecific trait variation among nasal bacteria shapes the distribution of Staphylococcus aureus – Ben Libberton – Infection and Immunity

“We characterised S. aureus growth inhibition by the culturable bacterial aerobe consortia of 60 nasal microbiomes, revealing intraspecific variation in growth inhibition and that inhibitory isolates clustered within communities that were culture-negative for S. aureus. “

Vaginal microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-07 at 01.53PM, Jul 07Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of healthy Canadian women through the menstrual cycle – Bonnie Chaban – Microbiome

“Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the universal target region of the cpn60 gene and generate amplicons representative of the microbial community. Amplicons were pyrosequenced, assembled into operational taxonomic units, and analyzed. “

Pregnancy

The effects of designation and volume of neonatal care on mortality and morbidity outcomes of very preterm infants in England: retrospective population-based cohort study – SI Watson – BMJ Open

“High-volume neonatal care provided at the hospital of birth may protect against in-hospital mortality in very preterm infants. “

Understanding the Complexity of the Immune System during Pregnancy – Karen Racicot – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“In this review, we discuss our present understanding of the ‘immunity of pregnancy’ in the context of the response to cervical and placental infections and how these responses affect both the mother and the fetus.”

 

Animal models of human microbiota or disease

Screen Shot 2014-07-07 at 11.00.33 PMGalacto‐oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification – Satoshi U. Furuse – Physiological Reports

“The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. “

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