Non-human microbiome, June 18

Microbiomes of horses, sheep, chicken, plants in Chili, built environment and rocks.

General microbiomes of animals

Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection? – Sarah Temmam – Int J Mol Sci

“In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.”

Horse microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-18 at 9.39.22 PMFaecal Microbiome of the Thoroughbred Racehorse and Its Response to Dietary Amylase Supplementation – Proudman C – Equine Veterinary Journal

Amplicons for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA gene were multiplexed and sequenced on the 454 resulting in ∼25,000 reads per sample. Differences in bacterial community structure were detected by linear discriminant analysis.”

Sheep microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.48.40 PMMethane yield phenotypes linked to differential gene expression in the sheep rumen microbiome – Weibing Shi – Genome Research

“Deep metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing demonstrated the presence of methanogens both in the highest and lowest methane-producing sheep, with a similar abundance of methanogens and methanogenesis pathway genes in high and low methane emitters. “

Chicken microbiome

ChickenSpatial heterogeneity and stability of bacterial community in the gastrointestinal tracts of broiler chickens – J. H. Choi – Poultry Science

“Bacterial communities in the different regions of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens were analyzed by pyrosequencing approach to understand microbial composition and diversity. “

Squid microbiome

SquidThe real threat posed by discover of antibiotic- resistent bacteria found in squid – Robert Lawrence and Patrick Baron, Baltimore – Washington Post

“The Food and Drug Administration can, and should, do more to limit the misuse of antibiotics in the production of food animals, whether terrestrial or aquatic, in order to reduce the risk of accelerating antibiotic resistance.”

Plant microbiome

Bacterial community structure and detection of putative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with plants grown in Chilean agro-ecosystems and undisturbed ecosystems – Milko A. Jorquera – Biology and Fertility of Soils

“Soil microorganisms with phytase- and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activities are widely studied as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here, we explored the bacterial community structure and occurrence of putative PGPR in plants grown in agro-ecosystems and undisturbed ecosystems from northern, central, and southern Chile.”

Built Environment Microbiome

housesmicroBEnet: Lessons Learned from Building an Interdisciplinary Scientific Community in the Online Sphere – Holly M. Bik, David A. Coil, Jonathan A. Eisen – PLOS Biology

“The microbiology of the Built Environment network (microBEnet: http://www.microbe.net/) was formed as an experiment in interdisciplinary community building, with an overarching goal to facilitate and nurture the development of a new research field: the microbiology of the built environment (MBE). “

Water microbiome

Review: Emerging Strategies and Integrated Systems Microbiology Technologies for Biodiscovery of Marine Bioactive Compounds – Javier Rocha-Martin – Marine Drugs

“Recent advances in genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, synthetic biology, screening methods, expression systems, bioinformatics, and the ever increasing availability of sequenced genomes provides us with more opportunities than ever in the discovery of novel bioactive compounds and biocatalysts.”

From community approaches to single-cell genomics: the discovery of ubiquitous hyperhalophilic Bacteroidetes generalists – María Gomariz – ISME Journal

“Here we have characterized the temporal variation during 1 year of the microbiota of five ponds with increasing salinity (from 18% to >40%), by means of CARD-FISH and DGGE.”

Soil and rock microbiome

Mineral Microniches Control the Diversity of Subsurface Microbial Populations – Aaron A. Jones – Geomicrobiology Journal

“These results suggest that adaptations to specific rocks are retained even when the organism is displaced in time and space from an ancestral rock habitat.”

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Human microbiome, June 10

Today we’ll cover the lung microbiome, salivary gland function, NEC, and sequencing of cosmid clones.
Oral microbiome

AutophagyAutophagy Correlates with Maintenance of Salivary Gland Function Following Radiation – Maria Morgan-Bathke – Nature Scientific Reports

“Thus, autophagy appears to play a beneficial role in salivary glands following radiation”

UbiquitousUbiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria – Saori Yoneda – PLOS ONE

“Using microarray analysis, we examined the transcriptional response of F. nucleatum subspecies nucleatum to whole blood in order to identify some of the genetic responses that might occur during the transition from health to disease.”

NYU and UCSF researchers develop a framework for monitoring oral cancer – ScienceCodex

“”We know that other cancers, including gallbladder, colon, lung and prostate, have been associated with particular bacterial infections, so we hypothesized that shifts in the composition of the normal oral cavity microbiome could be promoters or causes of oral cancer,” said Dr. Albertson.”

Respiratory microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.32.19 PMBreathing Life into Lung Microbiome Research – Rina Shaikh-Lesko – The Scientist

“Although it’s far less populated than the mouth community that helps feed it, researchers increasingly appreciate the role of the lung microbiome in respiratory health.”

Impact off extImpact of Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Densities in Healthy Adults – Joshua R. Shak – PLOS ONE

“To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B.”

Pregnancy and Birth

BrainModerate and Late Preterm Birth: Effect on Brain Size and Maturation at Term-Equivalent Age – Jennifer M. Walsh – Radiology

“MLPT birth is associated with smaller brain size, less-developed myelination of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and more immature gyral folding than those associated with full-term birth. “

Preemie Research Highlights Concerns With Human Experimentation – Frederick Reese – Mintpress

“Parents weren’t fully aware of the risks associated with a medical research trial they allowed their babies to participate in.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.30.20 PMSmall Intestinal Intraepithelial TCRγδ+ T Lymphocytes Are Present in the Premature Intestine but Selectively Reduced in Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp – PLOS ONE

“In human preterm infants, the proportion of IEL was reduced by 66% in 11 NEC ileum resections compared to 30 non-NEC controls (p<0.001). While γδ IEL dominated over conventional αβ IEL early in gestation in mice and in humans, γδ IEL were preferential decreased in the ileum of surgical NEC patients compared to non-NEC controls (50% reduction, p<0.05).”

Antibiotics and microbiome

Synthetic Biologics and Enterome Bioscience Collaborate on Microbiome Research to Support Synthetic Biologics’ C. difficile Program – MarketWatch

“Synthetic Biologics, Inc. (nyse mkt:SYN), a developer of novel anti-infective biologic and drug candidates targeting specific pathogens that cause serious infections and diseases, and Enterome Bioscience SA, a pioneer in the development of innovative disease management solutions based on a deep understanding of the gut microbiome, today announced that they have entered into an agreement to conduct metagenomic research on the effects of beta-lactam antibiotics on the gastrointestinal microflora (microbiome) of human patients”

Animal models of human disease

Screen Shot 2014-06-10 at 9.38.10 PMSaccharomyces boulardii Administration Changes Gut Microbiota and Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Low-Grade Inflammation, and Fat Mass in Obese and Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice – Amandine Everard – mBio

“Here we found that type 2 diabetic and obese mice (db/db) treated with Saccharomyces boulardii exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. “

Metagenomics and sequencing

Evaluation of a pooledEvaluation of a Pooled Strategy for High-Throughput Sequencing of Cosmid Clones from Metagenomic Libraries – Kathy N. Lam – PLOS ONE

“We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. “

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