Human microbiome, August 14, 2014

Culturing TM7, antibiotics early in life and obesity, preterm labor, breast milk, two articles by Carl Zimmer and one by Jop de Vrieze.

Pregnancy and Birth

Science has a special this week on Parenting, with a couple of relevant papers:

Preterm labor: One syndrome, many causes – Roberto Romero, Sudhansu K. Dey, Susan J. Fisher – Science

“We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance.”

Nature’s first functional food – Trisha Gura – Science

“Building upon a century-old study that first indicated that milk nourished certain bacteria in infants, the new work has characterized the complexity of breast milk carbohydrates called oligosaccharides, or HMOs, that particularly nourish one species of beneficial bacteria.”

The taste of things to come – Emily Underwood – Science

“Indeed, studies in human infants and animals suggest that we may start to learn and love different flavors as early as in the womb.”

Human oral microbiome

Axenic Culture of a Candidate Division TM7 Bacterium from the Human Oral Cavity and Biofilm Interactions with Other Oral Bacteria – Valeria Soro – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Successive rounds of enrichment in laboratory media led to the isolation of a pure culture of one of these candidate division TM7 phylotypes.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of therapeutic and diet-derived xenobiotics – Rachel N. Carmody and Peter J. Turnbaugh – Journal of Clinical Investigation

“Here, we integrate results from classic and current studies of the direct and indirect impacts of the gut microbiome on the metabolism of therapeutic drugs and diet-derived bioactive compounds. “

Taking the Yuck Out of Microbiome Medicine – Carl Zimmer – National Geographic

“I can still remember the shock I felt when I heard about fecal microbiota transplants for the first time. It is not the sort of thing you forget.”

Our Microbiome May Be Looking Out for Itself – Carl Zimmer – New York Times

“But in the journal Bioessays, a team of scientists has raised a creepier possibility. Perhaps our menagerie of germs is also influencing our behavior in order to advance its own evolutionary success — giving us cravings for certain foods, for example.”

Animal models of microbiome research

Altering the Intestinal Microbiota during a Critical Developmental Window Has Lasting Metabolic Consequences – Laura M. Cox – Cell

Press coverage: Taking antibiotics early in life leaves mice prone to obesity – Jop de Vrieze

“A new study of mice shows that interrupting the development of gut microbial populations with low doses of antibiotics early in life disturbs their metabolism and boosts the risk of obesity later on.”

The Gut Microbiota and Developmental Programming of the Testis in Mice – Maha Al-Asmakh – PLOS ONE

“Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT), which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. “

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