Human microbiome, August 11, 2014

Microbiome of Hadza Hunter, the premature infant gut, neonatal sepsis, skin and respiratory microbiome.

Microbiome general

BacterioFiles 178 – Hadza Hunters Have Heterogeneous Helpers (14 min) – Jesse Noar – BacterioFiles

“This episode: Modern hunter-gatherers have very different gut microbes from people from agricultural societies! “

“What is the FDA Going to Think?” – Negotiating Values through Reflective and Strategic Category Work in Microbiome Science – Katherine W. Darling – Science, Technology & Human Values

“Here, we describe how values are conceptualized and negotiated within microbiome research.”

Pregnancy and Birth microbiome

Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut – Patricio S. La Rosa – PNAS USA

“We demonstrate via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of 922 specimens from 58 subjects that the gut microbiota of premature infants residing in a tightly controlled microbial environment progresses through a choreographed succession of bacterial classes“

Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal late onset sepsis – Marre van den Brand – Journal of Microbiological Methods

“we developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay tailored to LOS diagnosis which is easy-to-use, is applicable on small blood volumes and provides species-specific results within 4 h.”

Respiratory microbiome

Uncovering the hidden villain within the human respiratory microbiome – Chun Kiat Lee, Stephen James Bent – Diagnosis

“The review herein presents the current status of human airway microbiome research and highlights potential gaps which can be translated into research possibilities for future work on respiratory tract infection diagnosis”

Skin microbiome

The skin microbiome: potential for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cutaneous disease – Elizabeth A. Grice – Skin and Allergy News

“It is increasingly apparent that this collective set of microorganisms and their genetic material, the “microbiome”, contributes genetic diversity, modulates disease, influences metabolic processes, and is essential for immunity.”

Animal models of human microbiome

Citrobacter rodentium: infection, inflammation and the microbiota – James W. Collins – Nature Reviews Microbiology

“In this Review, we discuss recent studies in which C. rodentium has been used to study mucosal immunology, including the deregulation of intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens. “


Human microbiome, July 14

Ethnic variation in vaginal microbiomes, effect of chemotherapy on human milk, response of (murine) microbiota to infection.

Oral microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.23PM, Jul 14Advancements toward a Systems Level Understanding of the Human Oral Microbiome – Jeffrey S. Mclean – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them.”

Vaginal microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.24PM, Jul 14Ethnic Variations in Cervical Cytokine Concentrations and Vaginal Flora During Pregnancy – Riana Dutt – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“Semi-quantitative vaginal cultures and concentrations of cervical cytokines were compared between Caucasian and non-Caucasian women.”

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.25PM, Jul 14A functional metabolic map of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a beneficial human gut microbe – Almut Heinken – Journal of Bacteriology

“In this study, we present an integrated, iterative approach of computational modeling, in vitro experiments, metabolomics and genomic analysis to accelerate the identification of metabolic capabilities for poorly characterized (anaerobic) microorganisms.”

Pregnancy and birth

Screen shot 2014-07-14 at 12.26PM, Jul 14Effect of chemotherapy on the microbiota and metabolome of human milk, a case report – Camilla Urbaniak – Microbiome

“Mature milk was collected every two weeks over a four month period from a lactating woman undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Mature milk was also collected from healthy lactating women for comparison. Microbial profiles were analyzed by 16S sequencing and the metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.”

Animal models

Clara Belzer miceDynamics of the Microbiota in Response to Host Infection – Clara Belzer – PLOS ONE

“Employing a murine model of infectious colitis with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, we generated a 2-month time-series of 16S rDNA gene profiles, and quantitatively cultured commensals, from multiple intestinal sites in infected and uninfected mice. “

Prune juice animal modelCarbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model – Giuliana D. Noratto – PLOS ONE

“Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats.”