Human microbiome digest, October 14, 2014

Preterm birth and pathogens, oral antibiotic changes skin microbiota, dynamics of tongue microbes, and detection of candidate phyla in the human mouth.

Pregnancy and birth

Microbiological Profile of PROM in a Tertiary Care Centre in Mangalore, Karnataka State
Annie Rajaratnam – International Journal of Health Sciences and Research

“A total of 104 cases of PROM that presented after 37 completed weeks’ of gestation were screened for infections by wet mount, Gram stain & routine culture of high vaginal swabs.“

Epidemiologic Factors and Urogenital Infections Associated With Preterm Birth in a Midwestern U.S. Population – Agger, William A – Obstetrics & Gynecology

“Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens.”

Human Milk Glycomics and Gut Microbial Genomics in Infant Feces Shows Correlation between Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Gut Microbiota: A Proof-of-Concept Study – Maria Lorna Arao De Leoz – Journal of Proteome Research

“Serial fecal specimens from two healthy breast-fed infants were analyzed by bacterial DNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota and by mass spectrometry to determine abundances of specific HMOs that passed through the intestinal tract without being consumed by the luminal bacteria. “

Human skin microbiome

* Oral Antibiotic Treatment Induces Skin Microbiota Dysbiosis and Influences Wound Healing – Meiling Zhang – Microbial Ecology

“our data demonstrate that antibiotic treatment decreases the bacterial density and alters the bacterial composition in skin wounds, followed by a decrease in RegIIIγ expression, which may contribute to the delayed wound repair. “

Human oral microbiome

* Dynamics of tongue microbial communities with single-nucleotide resolution using oligotyping – Jessica L. Mark Welch – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We employed oligotyping to analyze, with single-nucleotide resolution, oral microbial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data from a time course sampled from the tongue of two individuals, and we interpret our results in the context of oligotypes that we previously identified in the oral data from the Human Microbiome Project. “

Host-associated bacterial taxa from Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, GN02, Synergistetes, SR1, TM7, and WPS-2 Phyla/candidate divisions – Anuj Camanocha, Floyd E. Dewhirst – Journal of Oral Microbiology

“The objectives of this study were to create phyla-selective 16S rDNA PCR primer pairs, create selective 16S rDNA clone libraries, identify novel oral taxa, and update canine and human oral microbiome databases.”

Human gut microbiome

Environmental enteropathy and malnutrition: do we know enough to intervene? – William A Petri – BMC Medicine

“Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly defined state of intestinal inflammation without overt diarrhea that occurs in individuals exposed over time to poor sanitation and hygiene.”

* Meta-analyses of human gut microbes associated with obesity and IBD – William A. Walters, Zech Xu, Rob Knight – FEBS Letters

“Here we test for indicator taxa and general features of the microbiota that are generally consistent across studies of obesity and of IBD, focusing on studies involving high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (which we could process using a common computational pipeline). “

Diversity of Microflora in Colonic Mucus from Severe Ulcerative Colitis Patients Analyzed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Clone Libraries of Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences – I-Nung Huang – Advances in Microbiology

“Also in the clone library analysis, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and the Shannon diversity index were reduced significantly in UC patients.”

The Influence of Whole Grain Products and Red Meat on Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Normal Weight Adults: A Randomized Crossover Intervention Trial – Jana Foerster – PLOS ONE

“Repeatedly data on microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).”

Animal and bioreactor models of microbiome research

Assessing non-digestible compounds in apple cultivars and their potential as modulators of obese faecal microbiota in vitro – Luis Condezo-Hoyos – Food Chemistry

“Results showed that relative abundances of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Bifidobacterium in apple cultured faeces tended to resemble the abundance in faeces from lean mice with increased trend in the production of butyric acid. “

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