Microbiome digest, October 17, 2014

Resistance one year after antibiotic treatment, skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis, bacterial 16S rRNA load in the lungs, the rat oral microbiome, and microbes in cheese. And an exciting new discovery by Stanford scientists. Have a great weekend!

 

Multiple site human microbiome

Development of antimicrobial resistance in the normal anaerobic microbiota during one year after administration of clindamycin or ciprofloxacin – Mamun-Ur Rashid – Anaerobe

“Clindamycin or ciprofloxacin or placebo was given for 10 days in three groups. Skin, nasal, saliva, faeces sampling at day -1 and 11, 1, 2, 4 and 12 months.“

Shared microbiome in gums and the lung in an outpatient population – Patrick R. Schmidlin – Journal of Infection

“PCR to determine four periopathogens and seven less pathogenic species in both the periodontal pocket and bronchial protected specimen brush was used. “

Human skin microbiome

* Review: Role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis – Alexander Salava and Antti Lauerma – Clinical and Translational Allergy

“Molecular genetics have dramatically changed our vision of the micro-organisms colonizing the human skin and recently well-documented changes in the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis have become evident.”

Human respiratory microbiome

* The effect of long-term macrolide treatment on respiratory microbiota composition in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: an analysis from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled BLESS trial – Geraint B Rogers – The Lancet Respiratory Medicine

“Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of sputum samples from participants in the BLESS trial”

A Comparison between Droplet Digital and Quantitative PCR in the Analysis of Bacterial 16S Load in Lung Tissue Samples from Control and COPD GOLD 2 – Marc A. Sze – PLOS ONE

“qPCR and ddPCR were performed on these samples using primers spanning the V2 region on the 16S rRNA gene along with negative controls. Total 16S counts were compared between the two methods.”

Human gut microbiome

* With pictures! Fecal microbiota transplantation: A ‘How-To’ guide for nurses – Sharyn Leis – Collegian

“However, to date, much of the literature addresses the procedure from a physician’s point of view, and can therefore be lacking in practical detail. As nurses are often the ‘unsung heroes’ of the procedure, it is timely to address the subject from a nursing perspective.”

The Intestinal Microbiota and Microenvironment in Liver – Hong-Di Ma- Autoimmunity Reviews

“But the interplay between the intestinal tract and the liver may explain the increased association with autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. “

Alterations of gut barrier and gut microbiota in food restriction, food deprivation and protein-energy wasting – L. Genton – Clinical Nutrition

“This review… highlights the complex interactions between the components of gut barrier in depleted states due to food deprivation, food restriction and protein energy wasting and shows that these interactions are multidirectional”

Application of next-generation sequencing to study ascitic microbiome in cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis – Ye Feng- Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

“Both the 16S polymerase chain reaction approach and the whole genome shotgun approach were adopted for the next-generation sequencing technology. “

Chronic ethanol consumption alters intestinal microbiota impairing immune function – T. Barr – Alcohol

The gastrointestinal microbiome – functional interference between stomach and intestine – Loris R. Lopetuso – Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology

“This review focuses and speculates on the possible interactions between gastric microorganisms and intestinal microbiota and on the consequences of this interplay in modulating gut health.”

Animal models of microbiome research

Can Pre-Weaning Modulation of Intestinal Microbiota by Oligosaccharides or Amoxicillin Program Adult One in Rats? – Fanny B. Morel – Nutrition

“As revealed by a targeted qPCR approach, programming of adult intestinal microbiota seems to vary according to the nature of the pre-weaning microbiotal modulator.”

Animal microbiome

* Characterization of the rat oral microbiome and the effects of dietary nitrate – Embriette R. Hyde – Free Radical Biology and Medicine

“Demonstrates the utility of using metagenomics techniques to characterize the healthy rat tongue microbiome and to compare it to the healthy human tongue microbiome.”

Soil microbiome

High-Level Diversity of Tailed Phages, Eukaryote-Associated Viruses, and Virophage-Like Elements in the Metaviromes of Antarctic Soils – Olivier Zablocki – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“The metaviromes of two distinct Antarctic hyperarid desert soil communities have been characterized.”

Food microbiology

Microbial communities involved in Kashar cheese ripening – Oğuz Aydemir – Food Microbiology

“The molecular classification and identification of 594 LAB isolates during Kashar cheese ripening were performed through (GTG)5–PCR fingerprinting of their genomic DNA followed by verification of the (GTG)5–PCR clusters obtained after numerical analysis through 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative isolates. “

Characterization of the bacterial biodiversity in Pico cheese (an artisanal Azorean food)
Cristina Riquelme – International Journal of Food Microbiology

“Pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3–V4 regions of the 16S rDNA and Operational Taxonomic Unit-based (OTU-based) analysis were applied to obtain an overall idea of the microbiota in Pico cheese and to elucidate possible differences between cheese-makers (A, B and C) and maturation times.”

Metagenomics/Bioinformatics

Likelihood-Based Gene Annotations for Gap Filling and Quality Assessment in Genome-Scale Metabolic Models – Matthew N. Benedict – PLOS Computational Biology

“Here we develop an approach for applying genomic information to predict alternative functions for genes and estimate their likelihoods from sequence homology. “

Microbes in the news

‘Critical Conversation’ to focus on human microbiome – Sue Wuetcher – UB Reporter, University at Buffalo

“David Relman, the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor and professor of microbiology and immunology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, will speak on “Your Inner Self: The Human Microbiome in Health and Disease””

 

Bik’s Weekend Picks

Want to Ace That Test? Get the Right Kind of Sleep – Benedict Carey – New York Times

“Scientists now argue that a primary purpose of sleep is learning consolidation, separating the signal from the noise and flagging what is most valuable.”

‘Human face of science’: Researchers dance to raise funds for cancer study – RT.com

“Biomedicine scientists in Barcelona have released a music clip aimed at raising funds for medical research, as well as promoting their profession’s “human face.” The video’s release comes amid low levels of public interest in science throughout Spain.”

In science, popularity breeds unreliability – Tom Siegfried – Science News

“In recent decades, pressure to publish and seek publicity has distorted the scientific enterprise. Scientists need grants. Getting published raises the likelihood of getting those grants. “

Satire: Scientists Discover Two New Kinds Of Bird Poop – The Allium

“Scientists at Stanford University have revealed that they have discovered two new species of bird poop that defy classification. These are the first new species of poop that have been discovered in thirty five years. The findings have been reported this week in the journal Nature.”

[hr]

Microbiome digest, September 23, 2014

I don’t have much time tonight, so I’ll keep it short.

Pregnancy and birth

Homogeneity of the Vaginal Microbiome at the Cervix, Posterior Fornix, and Vaginal Canal in Pregnant Chinese Women – Yi-E Huang- Microbial Ecology

Impact of Feeding and Medical Practices on the Development of Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Brian L. Montenegro, Camilia R. Martin – Current Pediatrics Reports

Human respiratory microbiome

Expanding Our Understanding of Respiratory Microbiota in Cystic Fibrosis – John J. LiPuma – Annals of the American Thoracic Society

Microbiota in the throat and risk factors of laryngeal carcinoma – Hongli Gong – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Human gut microbiome

Membership and Behavior of Ultra-Low-Diversity Pathogen Communities Present in the Gut of Humans during Prolonged Critical Illness – Alexander Zaborin – mBio

The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures – Luis Vitetta – Pharmaceuticals

Excretion of host DNA in feces is associated with risk of Clostridium difficile infection –  Caroline Vincent – Journal of Immunology Research

Animal and in vitro studies of human microbiome

Effect of Oral Administration of Metronidazole or Prednisolone on Fecal Microbiota in Dogs – Hirotaka Igarashi – PLOS ONE

Age and Microenvironment Outweigh Genetic Influence on the Zucker Rat Microbiome
Hannah Lees – PLOS ONE

A comparative evaluation of prebiotic oligosaccharides using in vitro cultures of infant fecal microbiome – J Stiverson – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Alterations in Ileal Mucosa Bacteria Related to Diet Complexity and Growth Performance in Young Pigs – Crystal L. Levesque – PLOS ONE

Mammal microbiome

Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) – Erin A. McKenney – Integrative Zoology

Pathogenic Eukaryotes in Gut Microbiota of Western Lowland Gorillas as Revealed by Molecular Survey – Ibrahim Hamad – Scientific Reports

Insect microbiome

Routes of acquisition of the gut microbiota of Apis mellifera – J. Elijah Powell – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Sponge microbiome

Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality – Fan Zhang – FEMS Microbiology Ecology
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1574-6941.12427/abstract

Plant microbiome

Comparison of root system architecture and rhizosphere microbial communities of Balsas teosinte and domesticated corn cultivars – Márton Szoboszlay – Soil Biology and Biochemistry

Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria – Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo – Scientific Reports

Effects of Clonal Integration on Microbial Community Composition and Processes in the Rhizosphere of the Stoloniferous Herb Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian – Ningfei Lei – PLOS ONE

Soil type dependent effects of a potential biocontrol inoculant on indigenous bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce – Susanne Schreiter – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Soil microbiome

Culturable fungal assemblages growing within Cenococcum sclerotia in forest soils – Keisuke Obase – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Food microbiology

Dynamic changes of the microbial communities during the preparation of traditional Tibetan Qula cheese – Bei Zhang – Dairy Science & Technology

Metabolomics / Functional metagenomics

Identification of Aminoglycoside and β-Lactam Resistance Genes from within an Infant Gut Functional Metagenomic Library – Fiona Fouhy – PLOS ONE

Mining the Metabiome: Identifying Novel Natural Products from Microbial Communities

Aleksandr Milshteyn, Jessica S. Schneider, Sean F. Brady – Chemistry & Biology

Commensally sourced antibiotics – Cláudio Nunes-Alves – Nature Reviews Microbiology

Impact of dietary polydextrose fiber on the human gut metabolome – Santosh Lamichhane – Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Preserving the earth’s microbes for drug discovery in the future – Ranjith N. Kumavath and Satyanarayana S.V – Journal of Microbiology and Microbial Research

Microbial Ecology

PNAS has a special issue this week on Biogeography (with the Panama forest trees paper by Jessica Green): The emergence and promise of functional biogeography – Cyrille Violle – PNAS

Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells – Nadine Moebius – eLife

Microbes in the news

Microbiome: You are never alone – John A Goldman – Atlanta Medicine

Seeking the Sweet Spot, from Mouth to Microbiome – David Katz – Huffington Post

New evidence suggests long-term relationships with bacteria begins before we’re born – Norbert Berzog and David Niesel – Galveston County Daily News

MIT Developing Ship-Repairing Bacteria – World Maritime News

Science and publishing

Anonymous peer-review comments may spark legal battle – Kelly Servick – Science

[hr]

Non-human microbiome digest, September 15, 2014

Microbiomes of seals, sheep, pigs, raw milk, cheese, rubber, ocean, freshwater, acid mine drainage, deepsea basalt, and insects.

Mammal microbiome

Isolated faecal bacterial communities found for Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, at White Island, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica – Jonathan C. Banks – Polar Biology

“Here, we used 16S sequences obtained from clone libraries to characterise the faecal microbiota of Weddell seals breeding in McMurdo Sound and at White Island, Antarctica.”

Study of methanogen communities associated with different rumen protozoal populations – Alejandro Belanche – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally-faunated sheep and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microbes) were generated by sequential filtration. “

Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine – Devin B. Holman and Martin R. Chénier – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing.”

Development of a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive analysis of ruminal bacterial communities – M. Kim – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The utility of the RumenBactArray was tested using fractionated rumen samples obtained from sheep fed two different diets.”

Characterization of the Fecal Microbiota of Pigs before and after Inoculation with “Brachyspira hampsonii” – Matheus O. Costa – PLOS ONE

“Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at −8, −5, −3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination.”

Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics – Hsiao-Pei Lu – Scientific Reports

“We analyzed bacterial communities of six distinct gut sites (the food bolus and mucus layer of the proximal small intestine, cecum and distal large intestine), using wild folivorous flying squirrels.”

Insect microbiome

Dynamics of midgut microflora and dengue virus impact on life history traits in Aedes aegypti – Casey L. Hill – Acta Tropica

“Here we investigated the effects of the midgut microbial environment and dengue infection on several fitness characteristics among three strains of the primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. “

Anterior Foregut Microbiota of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Explored Using Deep 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing from Individual Insects – Elizabeth E. Rogers – PLOS ONE

Here, a survey of microbiota associated with the GWSS anterior foregut was conducted.”

The bacterial microbiota of Stolotermes ruficeps (Stolotermitidae), a phylogenetically basal termite endemic to New Zealand – Nicola M. Reid – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We identified core bacterial taxa involved in gut processes through combined DNA- and RNA (cDNA)-based pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA from five S. ruficeps colonies.”

Sponge and coral microbiome

Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum – Michel R. Z. Passarini – Journal of Basic Microbiology

“The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches.”

Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges – Mohd Azrul Naim – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study, we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments.”

Plant microbiome

Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties – M. Salomez – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation.”

Soils, sediments, and rocks microbiomes

A role for biotic filtering in driving phylogenetic clustering in soil bacterial communities – Marta Goberna – Global Ecology and Biogeography

“Here, we used phylogeny-based methods to discern whether the coexistence of evolutionarily related soil bacteria results from abiotic and/or biotic filtering.”

Microbial community composition and in-silico predicted metabolic potential reflect biogeochemical gradients between distinct peatland types – Zuzana Urbanová and Jiří Bárta – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“..we investigated biogeochemical parameters and microbial community composition in a bog, a fen and two SSF using high throughput barcoded sequencing of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) variable region V4.”

Deep-biosphere consortium of fungi and prokaryotes in Eocene subseafloor basalts – S. Bengtson – Geobiology

“We report here a consortium of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic micro-organisms, occupying cavities in deep-drilled vesicular basalt from the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean, 67.5 m below seafloor (mbsf). “

Endolithic bacterial communities in rock coatings from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland – Cassandra L. Marnocha – FEMS Microbiology and Ecology

“Using 454 Roche pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, nine rock coating samples from three different coating mineralogies were sequenced. “

Water microbiome

Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters – Sonja Oberbeckmann – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location”

Biogeographic patterns in ocean microbes emerge in a neutral agent-based model – Ferdi L. Hellweger – Science

“We quantify the role of neutral processes by simulating division, mutation, and death of 100,000 individual marine bacteria cells with full 1 million–base-pair genomes in a global surface ocean circulation model. “

Microbial gardening in the ocean’s twilight zone: Detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus – Daniel J. Mayor – BioEssays

“Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of ‘microbial gardening’, a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the ‘gardener’s’ access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life.”

Diversity and spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial communities: physicochemical and other drivers along an acid mine drainage – Aurélie Volant – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“… biodiversity and spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial communities were characterized using T-RFLP fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing. “

Diversity and activity of marine bacterioplankton during a diatom bloom in the North Sea assessed by total RNA and pyrotag sequencing – Anna Klindworth – Marine Genomics

“In this study we re-analyzed samples from the initial study by total community RNA (metatranscriptomics) and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.”

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Coastal Bacterial Community Abundance and Diversity – Angeliki Marietou and Douglas H. Bartlett – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Culturable high-pressure-surviving bacteria were obtained and found to be phylogenetically similar to isolates from cold and/or deep-sea environments. “

A high-throughput sequencing ecotoxicology study of freshwater bacterial communities and their responses to tebuconazole – Noémie Pascault – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously exposed sites than in pristine sites.”

Food Microbiology

Microbial Ecology Dynamics Reveal a Succession in the Core Microbiota Involved in the Ripening of Pasta Filata Caciocavallo Pugliese Cheese – Ilaria De Pasquale – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, community-level physiological profiles made with Biolog EcoPlates, proteolysis, and volatile component (VOC) analyses were mainly used to characterize the manufacture and ripening of the pasta filata cheese Caciocavallo Pugliese.”

Tracing the origin of raw milk from farm by using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting of microbiota – Maria Feligini – Food Control

“A total of 64 markers within the range 279–756 bp were detected on the thirty-eight bulk milk samples, none of which was common to all the patterns. “

[hr]

 

Microbiome Digest, August 29, 2014

@MicrobiomDigest will be enjoying vacation for the next two weeks, so I won’t be able to post as much as usual. I might occasionally have some time and internet access at the same time, and post something, but don’t rely on this blog during that time for your daily Microbiome fix. But I will be back! Enjoy this last (short) one for now:
Human oral microbiome

Bacterial community composition of chronic periodontitis and novel oral sampling sites for detecting disease indicators – Vaia Galimanas – Microbiome

Human gut microbiome

Immunoglobulin A Coating Identifies Colitogenic Bacteria in Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Noah W Palm – Cell

Modulation of immune development and function by intestinal microbiota – Agnieszka M. Kabat – Trends in Immunology

 

Worms, bacteria, and micronutrients: an elegant model of our diet – Lutfu Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J.M. Walhout – Trends in Genetics

 

Mammal microbiome

Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics (in flying squirrels) – Hsiao-Pei Lu – Scientific Reports

Social influences on the gut microbiome of developing monkeys – W.Z. Amaral – Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

 

Do Rumen Bacteroidetes Utilize an Alternative Mechanism for Cellulose Degradation? – AE Naas – mBio

 

Characterization of the Fecal Microbiota of Pigs before and after Inoculation with “Brachyspira hampsonii” – Matheus O. Costa – PLOS ONE

 

Sponges and corals

The versatile nature of coral-associated viruses – Bettarel Yvan – Environmental Microbiology

Onset and establishment of diazotrophs and other bacterial associates in the early life history stages of the coral Acropora millepora – Kimberley A. Lema – Molecular Ecology

Rocks and Water Microbiome

Microbial Colonization of Bare Rocks: Laboratory Biofilm Enhances Mineral Weathering – F. Seiffert – Procedia Earth and Planetary Science

Microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling in soda lakes – Dimitry Y. Sorokin – Extremophiles

Food microbiome

Switzerland Puts Secret Bacteria In Cheese To Catch Knockoffs – Sarah Zhang – Gizmodo

Bioinformatics

A Scalable and Accurate Targeted Gene Assembly Tool (SAT-Assembler) for Next-Generation Sequencing Data – Yuan Zhang – PLOS Computational Biology

Metabolomics

Taking your breath away: metabolomics breathes life in to personalized medicine
Nicholas J.W. Rattray – Trends in Biotechnology

Phages and Viruses

Identifying and analyzing bacteriophages in human fecal samples: what could we discover? – Maite Muniesa1 & Juan Jofre – Future Medicine

Microbes in the news

Hotel rooms aren’t yucky – you colonize them with your own personal bacteria within hours — Rachel Feltman – Washington Post

A touching story: The ancient conversation between plants, fungi and bacteria – David Tenenbaum – News UW Madison

Bik’s Picks

The universal ‘anger face’: Each element makes you look physically stronger and more formidable – Science Daily

Zombie Bacteria Invasion? Nothing To Worry About – Science 2.0

Report: Ice Bucket Challenge Causing Ecological Mayhem in California – The Allium (Satire)

[hr]

 

Microbiome digest, August 27, 2014

Not many microbiome papers today, just some other interesting topics: does dirt make you happy, definition of preterm labor, cheese cultures, and solving a Death Valley mystery.

Pregnancy and birth 

The Problem With What Doctors Call Preterm Labor – Catherine Pearson – Huffington Post

“”We have been thinking of preterm birth as though it is one condition, and this is not the right way of thinking about the problem,” Dr. Roberto Romero, chief of the perinatology research branch of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, told The Huffington Post.”

Insect microbiome

* Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites – Saria Otani – Molecular Ecology

“Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes”

Microbes in the news

* Does Dirt Make You Happy? – Anna Brones – Modern Farmer

“We benefit from being outdoors and exposed to things like soil and animals, because of the fact that we’re exposed to microorganisms.”

* Scientists and cheesemakers gather for (microbial) culture – Ewen Callaway – Nature News

““I fall in love every time I look at a cheese rind. They’re wonderful microbial ecosystems,” she says.”

Transcriptomics

Comparative analysis of the transcriptome across distant species – Mark B. Gerstein – Nature

“To this end, the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia have generated large amounts of matched RNA-sequencing data for human, worm and fly. “

Bik’s Picks

This has intrigued me for years – very happy to see this paper.
Sliding Rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First Observation of Rocks in Motion – Richard D. Norris – PLOS ONE

“the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, “windowpane” ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of ~4–5 m/s.”

[hr]

General microbiology and science, August 25, 2014

Microbial networks, proteomics of Fusobacterium, ants carrying pathogens into hospitals, and what’s in your lab freezer?

Bioinformatics

Sparse and compositionally robust inference of microbial ecological networks – Zachary D. Kurtz – arXiv at Cornel University Library

“Here, we present SPIEC-EASI (SParse InversE Covariance Estimation for Ecological Association Inference), a statistical method for the inference of microbial ecological interactions from metagenomic datasets that addresses both of these issues. “

Metabolomics / proteomics

Modelling the Emergent Dynamics and Major Metabolites of the Human Colonic Microbiota – Helen Kettle – Environmental Microbiology

“We present here a first attempt at modelling microbial dynamics in the human colon incorporating both uncertainty and adaptation. “

Proteomics of Fusobacterium nucleatum within a model developing oral microbial community  – Erik L. Hendrickson – MicrobiologyOpen

“About 1210 F. nucleatum proteins were detected in single species F. nucleatum control samples, 1192 in communities with P. gingivalis, 1224 with S. gordonii, and 1135 with all three species.”

Techniques

* (Preprint) Sources of PCR-induced distortions in high-throughput sequencing datasets – Justus M Kebschull, Anthony M Zador – bioRXiv

We examined the effects of bias, stochasticity, template switches and polymerase errors introduced during PCR on sequence representation in next-generation sequencing libraries. “

More microbes

* Ants as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms in a hospital in Sao Paulo county, Brazil – Heros J Máximo – BMC Research Notes

“Ants in hospitals may carry both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and methods of controlling urban ants should be adopted and strictly adhered to, to minimize the risk of infection in hospital patients.”

Microbes in the news

What’s in your laboratory freezer? – Timothy J. Donahue – American Society of Microbiology

“I ask all microbiologists to make sure that you and your colleagues know what they have in the lab (freezer, refrigerator, store room, etc).”

* Hot Spring Bacteria Can Live Off Invisible Light Alone – Brian Stallard – Nature World News

“Researcher(sic) studying cyanobacteria in hot springs have discovered that the potentially harmful algae can live in near-darkness, absorbing far-red light and converting it into energy while releasing oxygen. “

Insect-borne bacteria destroy ancient Italian olive groves – Tom Kington – GulfNews

“The ancient olive groves of southern Italy, which provide much of the oil the country exports, are being destroyed by deadly, insect-borne bacterium that has already infected nearly half a million trees and has no known cure.”

Uncultured Bacteria (with video) – Serious Science

“Northeastern University Prof. Kim Lewis on great plate count anomaly, siderophores, and human microbiome”

#BacteriaHysteria

* How to Keep Bacteria Out of Your Child’s Lunchbox – FoodSafetyNews

“If possible, a child’s lunch should be stored in a refrigerator during school, but the lid should be left open so that cold air can better circulate and keep the food cold.”

* Chick-fil-A incorporates bacteria-killing copper into restrooms – The News Herald

“Seidel said that Chick-fil-A Owner and Operator Dallas Stoudenmire has realized his responsibility to keep customers bacteria free and is taking the right steps to do so.”

Science and publishing

Concerns Raised Online Linger – Kate Yandell – The Scientist

“The great majority of comments point out some kind of problem,” PubPeer moderators wrote in an e-mail to The Scientist.

Bik’s Picks

Eye implant developed at Stanford could lead to better glaucoma treatments – Bjorn Carey – Stanford News

“A tiny eye implant developed by Stephen Quake’s lab could pair with a smartphone to improve the way doctors measure and lower a patient’s eye pressure.”

Scientists grow an organ in an animal from cells created in lab – Science Daily

“The researchers have created a thymus — an organ next to the heart that produces immune cells known as T cells that are vital for guarding against disease.”

Mozzarella and cheddar are the perfect pizza toppers, according to science – Jenn Harris – LA Times

“Understanding the value of a pie spotted with perfectly crisp cheese, a group of scientists in New Zealand set out to find which cheeses create the perfect topping.”

[hr]

Non-human microbiome

Microbiome of sheep, Drosophila on cherries, wild and sugar beets, sauerkraut, sake, and cheese. Sounds like a good meal.
Sheep microbiome

Pros and Cons of Ion-Torrent Next Generation Sequencing versus Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism T-RFLP for Studying the Rumen Bacterial Community – Gabriel de la Fuente – PLOS ONE

“We analysed the bacterial diversity in the rumen of defaunated sheep following the introduction of different protozoal populations, using both next generation sequencing (NGS: Ion Torrent PGM) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).”

Insect microbiome

The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries
James Angus Chandler – PeerJ

“Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. “

Evaluating Insect-Microbiomes at the Plant-Insect Interface – Clare L. Casteel, Allison K. Hansen – Journal of Chemical Ecology

“In this review, we critically evaluate the requirements for insect-associated microbes to develop synergistic relationships with their hosts, and we mechanistically discuss how some of these insect-associated microbes can target or modify host plant defenses.”

Saccharide breakdown and fermentation by the honey bee gut microbiome
Authors – Fredrick J. Lee – Environmental microbiology

“In order to better understand the contribution of the microbial community to food processing in the honey bee, we generated a metatranscriptome of the honey bee gut microbiome.”

Plant microbiome

Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima – ancestor of all beet crops – and modern sugar beets – Christin Zachow – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions.”

Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process – Daniela Bulgari – BMC Microbiology

“Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. “

Water microbiology

Core Functional Traits of Bacterial Communities in the Upper Mississippi River Show Limited Variation in Response to Land Cover – Christopher Staley – Frontiers in Microbiology

“In this study we characterized functional microbial diversity at 11 sites along the Mississippi River in Minnesota using both metagenomic sequencing and functional-inference-based (PICRUSt) approaches.”

Potential drivers of microbial community structure and function in Arctic snow – Lorrie Maccario – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We applied a metagenomic approach to nine snow samples taken over two months during the spring season. Fungi, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were predominant in metagenomic datasets and changes in community structure were apparent throughout the field season.”

Soil microbiology

Nutrient addition dramatically accelerates microbial community succession – Knelman JE – PLOS ONE

“We evaluated soil properties and examined bacterial community composition in plots before and one year after fertilization.”

Food microbiology

Sauerkraut: bacteria making food – S.E. Gould – Lab Rat – Scientific American

“As the bacteria required for sauerkraut fermentation are found on the cabbage leaves, it’s a very easy and healthy dish to produce. All you need is cabbage! “

Indigenous bacteria and fungi drive traditional kimoto sake fermentations
Nicholas A. Bokulich – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus subsp. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. “

Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis – V. Delcenserie – Journal of Dairy Science

“The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. “

[hr]