Microbiome digest, November 3, 2014

Human oral and vaginal microbiomes, rumen microbiome of impalas, sample handling and sponges, and two remarkable pieces in the New York Times.

Human oral microbiome

The association between the upper digestive tract microbiota by HOMIM and oral health in a population-based study in Linxian, China – Guoqin Yu – BMC Public Health

“Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarrays were used to test for the presence of 272 human oral bacterial species (97 genera) in upper digestive tract (UDT) samples collected from 659 participants. “

Pregnancy and birth microbiome

Poster: Comparison of the Vaginal Microbiomes of Pregnant Women of Four Ethnicities
and Identification of Taxa Associated with Urogenital Disease – Mendz GL – ECCMID Poster

“Principal component analysis suggested differences in the bacterial populations of healthy women and those with genital infections, with clustering of the latter along the Protobacteria axis “

Animal microbiome

Examination of the Rumen Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea of Wild Impalas (Aepyceros melampus melampus) from Pongola, South Africa – Laura M. Cersosimo – Microbial Ecology

“In the present study, next-generation sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the diversity and density of the bacteria and methanogenic archaea residing in the rumen of five adult male impalas”

Effects of sample handling and cultivation bias on the specificity of bacterial communities in keratose marine sponges – Cristiane C. Hardoim – Frontiers in Microbiology

Bacterial community profiling of the sympatric keratose species Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis (Dictyoceratida, Irciniidae) was performed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequecing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. “

Plant microbiome

Soil type-dependent effects of a potential biocontrol inoculant on indigenous bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce – Susanne Schreiter – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. “

Are heterotrophic and silica-rich eukaryotic microbes an important part of the lichen symbiosis? – David M Wilkinson – Mycology: An International Journal on Fungal Biology

“In this necessarily speculative paper we highlight areas for future research and how newer technologies may be useful for understanding the full suite of organisms involved in the lichen symbiosis.”

Soil microbiome

Selection on soil microbiomes reveals reproducible impacts on plant function – Kevin Panke-Buisse – ISME Journal

“Analysis of the soil microbial community using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing showed distinct microbiota profiles assembling by flowering time treatment.”

Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA – Magdalena R. Osburn – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment.”

Bioinformatic tools

* Seeing the forest for the genes: Using metagenomics to infer the aggregated traits of microbial communities – Noah Fierer – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Microbial ecologists could benefit by borrowing the concept of community-aggregated traits (CATs) from plant ecologists to glean more insight from the ever-increasing amount of metagenomic data being generated.”

Metabolomics

Fructan supplementation of senior cats affects stool metabolite concentrations and fecal microbiota concentrations, but not nitrogen partitioning in excreta – K.A. Barry – Journal of Animal Science

“Fructan supplementation may benefit senior cats as it modulates stool odor-forming compounds and decreases some protein catabolites and pathogenic gut microbiota concentrations without affecting N retention.”

Proteomics

From the Banfield lab: Development of an enhanced metaproteomic approach for deepening the microbiome characterization in the human infant gut – Weili Xiong – Journal of Proteome Research

“….we have designed a novel metaproteomic strategy based on double filtering (DF) the raw samples, a method that fractionates microbial from human cells to enhance microbial protein identification and characterization in complex fecal samples from healthy premature infants. “

More microbiology

Complementarity between targeted real-time specific PCR and conventional broad-range 16S rDNA PCR in the syndrome-driven diagnosis of infectious diseases – A.-S. Morel – European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

“Herein, we report our experience in the diagnosis of infectious diseases over two years, during which 32,948 clinical samples from 18,056 patients were received from France and abroad.”

Microbes in the news

There Is No ‘Healthy’ Microbiome – Ed Yong – New York Times

“The microbiome is complex, varied, ever changing and context-dependent — qualities that are the enemies of easy categorization.”

Study: Ice Man has traces of bacteria that undermined his health – BetaWired

“…they found evidence of the presence of Treponema denticola, an opportunistic pathogen implicated in the development of periodontal diseases. “

Science, publishing, and career

How Do Small Things Make a Big Difference? Activities to Teach about Human–Microbe Interactions – Chandana Jasti – The American Biology Teacher

“In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human–microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models.”

2014 Life Sciences Salary Survey – Jyoti Madhusoodanan – The Scientist

“This year’s data reveal notable variation in compensation for life scientists working in different fields, sectors, and regions of the world.”

Academic Science Isn’t Sexist – Wendy M. Williams and Stephen J. Ceci – New York Times

Our analyses show that women can and do prosper in math-based fields of science, if they choose to enter these fields in the first place.”

and two rebuttals:
Academic science is sexist: We do have a problem here – Emily Willingham
The flawed and offensive logic of “Academic Science Isn’t Sexist” in the @nytimes – Jonathan Eisen – The Tree of Life

Bik’s Picks

Standing time and all-cause mortality in a large cohort of Australian adults – Hidde P. van der Ploeg – Preventive Medicine

“Increasing standing may hold promise for alleviating the health risks of prolonged sitting.”

A Face to Remember – Kerry Grens – The Scientist

“Once dominated by correlational studies, face-perception research is moving into the realm of experimentation—and gaining tremendous insight.”

* With a very cute picture: Rovers Disguised as Baby Penguins Can Quietly Infiltrate Penguin Colonies – Rachel Nuwer – Smithsonian

“Pursuing this hunch, they outfitted the rover with a big ball of fluff and a little penguin head and arms. ”

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Microbiome digest, October 15, 2014

A seminar this Friday with Pat Schloss, but without HMP girl, aspartame and gut microbiome in a rat model, bacteria in arsenic contaminated soil, and inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer.

Human oral microbiome

General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects – Jana Schmidt – PLOS ONE

“Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination.”

Pregnancy and birth

* The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth – SS Witkin – BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology

“Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40–50% of preterm births. “

Animal models of microbiome research

* Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat – Marie S. A. Palmnäs – PLOS ONE

“Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. “

Effect of dietary supplementation with resveratrol on nutrient digestibility, methanogenesis and ruminal microbial flora in sheep – T. Ma – Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

“Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred ewes. “

Soil microbiome

Changing precipitation pattern alters soil microbial community response to wet-up under a Mediterranean-type climate – Romain L Barnard – ISME Journal

“Here, we investigated the effects of extending winter rainfall into the normally dry summer period on soil microbial response to a controlled rewetting event”

Surface binding and intracellular uptake of arsenic in bacteria isolated from arsenic contaminated site – Neha Vishnoi, Sonal Dixit, D.P. Singh – Ecological Engineering

“The present study deals with the surface binding and uptake of arsenic (As) in two bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus macerans) isolated from the As contaminated soil.”

Water microbiome

Effects of ecological engineered oxygenation on the bacterial community structure in an anoxic fjord in western Sweden – Michael Forth – ISME Journal

“We used molecular ecologic methods to study changes in bacterial community structure in response to the oxygenation in the Byfjord. “

Food microbiology

Assessment of the bacterial and fungal diversity in home-made yoghurts of Xinjiang, China by pyrosequencing – Haiyan Xu – Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

“The bacterial and fungal community diversity in 22 home-made yoghurt samples was analyzed by pyrosequencing. “

CRISPRs, phages, viruses

In Hopes Of Fixing Faulty Genes, One Scientist Starts With The Basics – Joe Palca – NPR Morning Edition

“That’s certainly true for Jennifer Doudna. She hasn’t won a Nobel Prize, but many are whispering that she’s in line to win one for her work on something called CRISPR/Cas9 — a tool for editing genes.”

Bioinformatics and metagenomics

* Inter-phylum HGT has shaped the metabolism of many mesophilic and anaerobic bacteria – Alejandro Caro-Quintero and Konstantinos T Konstantinidis – ISME Journal

“Here, we devised a novel bioinformatic pipeline, which minimized the effect of over-representation of specific taxa in the available databases and other limitations of homology-based approaches by analyzing genomes in standardized triplets, to quantify gene exchange between bacterial genomes representing different phyla. “

* Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria
Shijulal Nelson-Sathi – Nature

“To investigate the origin of higher taxa in archaea, we have determined gene distributions and gene phylogenies for the 267,568 protein-coding genes of 134 sequenced archaeal genomes in the context of their homologues from 1,847 reference bacterial genomes.”

Evidence of Carbon Fixation Pathway in a Bacterium from Candidate Phylum SBR1093 Revealed with Genomic Analysis – Zhiping Wang – PLOS ONE

“A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. “

Metagenomic Approach Reveals Variation of Microbes with Arsenic and Antimony Metabolism Genes from Highly Contaminated Soil – Jinming Luo – PLOS ONE

“Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb.”

More microbiology

* The Phylogeny of Everything, the Origin of Eukaryotes, and the Rules of Taxonomy: Death to Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya! Long live Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Eukaryota, and Prokaryota! – Judge Starling

“The molecular revelation based on orthologous ribosomal RNA sequences that prokaryotes are separable into two basic taxa—archaebacteria and eubacteria, and that these two taxa are approximately equidistant from eukaryotes, prompted Woese et al. (1990) to come up with a tripartite taxonomy of all life forms.”

Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition – Jonas Schluter – ISME Journal

“We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. “

Microbes in the news:

* Google Hangout on Friday: MicroSeminar: A new way of doing conferences – Pat Schloss

“You will not see HMP Girl, no quotes of specious statistics, no mention of obscure disease, and no venturing into the weeds of bioinformatics. I will be describing unpublished experiments from the lab where we have taken various sources of microorganisms and used them to colonize mice that lack their own microbiota.”

‘Grapes of Wrath’: Stomping out grape disease one vineyard at a time – Phys.org

“A Rochester Institute of Technology scientist and an RIT alumnus are close to completing the genetic blueprint, or microbiome, of grape crown gall tumor disease—the bane of vineyards worldwide. ”

Redefining Human: The Microbiome Documentary Series – Root House Studio – Kickstarter

“We know science documentaries can be painfully boring, so Redefining Human will use a variety of new techniques to turn this complex science into an informative and entertaining documentary series.”

What’s in my microbiome? – Richard Sprague

“To find out what’s in my microbiome now, I bought a $400 kit from the San Francisco company uBiome. “

Science, publishing and career

* Rise of the Rest: The Growing Impact of Non-Elite Journals – Anurag Acharya – Google / Arxiv

“Our analysis indicates that the number of top-1000 papers published in non-elite journals for the representative subject category went from 149 in 1995 to 245 in 2013, a growth of 64%.”

Review rewards – Welcome efforts are being made to recognize academics who give up their time to peer review – Nature Editorial

“A welcome movement is under way to publicly register and recognize the hitherto invisible efforts of referees.”

Overqualified or underqualified? – Carrie Arnold – Science

“As unemployment stretched from weeks into months, Milstein decided that her Ph.D. was working against her. “

 

Satire: Facebook Offers To Freeze Female Employee’s Newborn Children – The Onion

“Women deserve to have the option to postpone motherhood until they feel fully prepared, which is why Facebook will also cover the cryonic facility’s annual maintenance costs for as many years as our employees feel they need. “

Bik’s Picks

360-Degree View of the Tomato – Anna Azvolinsky – The Scientist

“Researchers have sequenced 360 varieties of the tomato plant to create a comprehensive map of the evolution of the fruit from its wild form to the modern varieties. “

Extinct giant kangaroos didn’t hop, they walked – Andy Coghlan – New Scientist

“They had faces like rabbits and some were 2 metres tall. But now it seems that an extinct giant kangaroo didn’t hop – it walked.“

 

Chimpanzees have favorite ‘tool set’ for hunting staple food of army ants – Science Daily

“New research shows that chimpanzees search for the right tools from a key plant species when preparing to ‘ant dip’ — a crafty technique enabling them to feast on army ants without getting bitten. “

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Non-human microbiome digest, October 2, 2014

Microbiomes of mares with colic, corals and ascidians, bacteria in plant seeds, ciprofloxacin in compost, and yeast in Turkish sausages.

Mammal microbiome

Diversity and Community Composition of Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Scottish Upland Sheep Assessed by Different Methods – Timothy J. Snelling – PLOS ONE

“Sequences mapping to rumen 16S rRNA and mcrA gene references were extracted from Illumina metagenome data.“

* Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine – Devin B. Holman – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing. “

Changes in the faecal microbiota of mares precede the development of postpartum colic
J. S. Weese – Equine Veterinary Journal

“Next generation sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on samples from 13 mares that developed colic, 13 mares that did not display colic, and 5 non-pregnant controls.”

Bird microbiome

Correlations between changes in intestinal microbiota composition and performance parameters in broiler chickens – L. A. Rubio – Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

“The composition of the intestinal microbiota was analysed by qPCR at different points of the intestinal tract, and a number of nutritional parameters were also determined.”

Insect microbiomes

Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis – Gordon M. Bennett – mBio

“To understand how symbiont genome degeneration proceeds, we compared the genomes of symbionts in two leafhopper species”

Metagenome-Wide Association of Microbial Determinants of Host Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster – John M. Chaston – mBio

“.. we measured two microbiota-responsive host traits, development time and triglyceride (TAG) content, in Drosophila melanogaster flies monoassociated with each of 41 bacterial strains.”

Invertebrate microbiome

Quorum Sensing Signal Production and Microbial Interactions in a Polymicrobial Disease of Corals and the Coral Surface Mucopolysaccharide Layer – Beth L. Zimmer – PLOS ONE

“These findings demonstrate for the first time that AHLs are present in an active coral disease.”

The secret to a successful relationship: lasting chemistry between ascidians and their symbiotic bacteria – Eric W. Schmidt – Invertebrate Biology

Plant microbiome

Plants prepackage beneficial microbes in their seeds – Phys.org

“The researchers, from the University of Notre Dame, presented their findings today at the 5th ASM Conference on Beneficial Microbes.”

Cave microbiome

* Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans – Tao Zhang – PLOS ONE

“This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. “

Soil and sediment microbiome

Differential distribution and abundance of diazotrophic bacterial communities across different soil niches using a gene-targeted clone library approach – Basit Yousuf – FEMS Microbiology Letters

“Differential occurrence of diazotrophs was studied by the nifH gene-targeted clone library approach.”

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Sediments of Sundarbans Using Parallel 16S rRNA Gene Tag Sequencing – Pijush Basak – Microbial Ecology

“The total sediment DNA was extracted and subjected to the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, which resulted in 117 Mbp of data from three experimental stations. “

Ciprofloxacin residues in municipal biosolids compost do not selectively enrich populations of resistant bacteria – Caitlin P. Youngquist – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P<0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. “

Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City’s Central Park are similar to those observed globally – Kelly S. Ramirez – Proceedings of the Royal Society B

“Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity.”

Water microbiome

Abundance and Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Integrons in Lake Sediment Microcosms – Björn Berglund – PLOS ONE

“Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/106 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. “

Microbial composition of the activated sludge of Moscow wastewater treatment plants
A. Yu. Kallistova – Microbiology

“FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludge were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly.”

Phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton structure and function across the southern Great Barrier Reef shelf – Daniel M. Alongi – Journal of Marine Systems

“Phytoplankton, bacteria and virus dynamics are driven by across-shelf changes in water chemistry and hydrography.”

Food microbiology

Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica – Marisol Correa-Ascencio – PNAS

“A novel bacterial lipid biomarker approach is reported, which provides a new means of documenting the consumption of bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages in antiquity worldwide.”

Biodiversity of Yeast Mycobiota in “Sucuk,” a Traditional Turkish Fermented Dry Sausage: Phenotypic and Genotypic Identification, Functional and Technological Properties – Ismet Ozturk, and Osman Sagdic – Journal of Food Science

“The yeast isolates were determined as genotypic using 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR).”

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Non-human microbiome digest, September 29, 2014

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Microbiome of house mice, rumen, fish species in the same pond, sponges and corals, coastal sediments, and mycobacteria and amoeba in drinking water.

Mammal microbiome

Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing – Jakub Kreisinger – Molecular Ecology

“Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus)”

Study of methanogen communities associated with different rumen protozoal populations – Alejandro Belanche – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally faunated sheep, and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microorganisms) were generated by sequential filtration. “

Microbial profiles of liquid and solid fraction associated biomaterial in buffalo rumen fed green and dry roughage diets by tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing – K. M. Singh – Molecular Biology Reports

“The rumen bacterial composition of both liquid and solid fraction was surveyed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.”

Bacterial Community Composition and Fermentation Patterns in the Rumen of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Three Different Diets – Zhipeng Li – Microbial Ecology

“The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3 × 3 latin square design.”

Fish microbiome

Do the intestinal microbiotas differ between paddlefish (Polyodon spathala) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) reared in the same pond? – X.M. Li – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“After 30 days of rearing, the intestinal microbiota of the two fish species was assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes.”

Tending a complex microbiota requires major immune complexity – Keaton Stagaman – Molecular Ecology

“In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bolnick et al. (2014a) sample the gut microbial community from 150 genetically diverse stickleback isolated from a single lake”

Insect microbiome

The bacterial microbiota of Stolotermes ruficeps (Stolotermitidae), a phylogenetically basal termite endemic to New Zealand – Nicola M. Reid – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We identified core bacterial taxa involved in gut processes through combined DNA- and RNA (cDNA)-based pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S nucleotide sequence from five S. ruficeps colonies.”

Genetic groups and endosymbiotic microbiota of the Bemisia tabaci species complex in Japanese agricultural sites – A. Fujiwara – Journal of Applied Entomology

“Use of the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence technique and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequencing detected five genetic groups”

Sponge and Coral microbiome

Phylogenetic signal in the community structure of host-specific microbiomes of tropical marine sponges – Cole G. Easson and Robert W. Thacker – Frontiers in Microbiology

“As part of the Earth Microbiome Project, we surveyed the microbiomes associated with 20 species of tropical marine sponges collected over a narrow geographic range.”

* Onset and establishment of diazotrophs and other bacterial associates in the early life history stages of the coral Acropora millepora – Kimberley A. Lema – Molecular Ecology

“Using an amplicon pyrosequencing approach, the diversity of both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of bacterial communities overall was assessed through analysis of nifH and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. “

Biogeography rather than association with cyanobacteria structures symbiotic microbial communities in the marine sponge Petrosia ficiformis  – Ilia Burgsdorf – Forntiers in Microbiology

“16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing data of the microbial communities revealed that Chloroflexi, Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria dominated the bacterial communities of all sponges analyzed. “

Soil and sediments microbiome

Interactive effects of C, N and P fertilization on soil microbial community structure and function in an Amazonian rain forest – Nicolas Fanin – Functional Ecology

“Changes in microbial community structure did not affect rates of general processes such as glucose mineralization and cellulose paper decomposition. “

The long-term adaptation of bacterial communities in metal-contaminated sediments. A metaproteogenomic study – David C. Gillan – Environmental Microbiology

“Two freshwater sites, Férin and MetalEurop, differing by one order of magnitude in metal levels .. were compared by shotgun metaproteogenomics.”

Effect of plankton-derived organic matter on the microbial community of coastal marine sediments – Paula Carpintero de Moraes – Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

“Analyses of molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) showed differences in bacterial community composition between both treatments and control just after algae addition. “

Rapid bacterial colonization of low-density polyethylene microplastics in coastal sediment microcosms – Jesse P Harrison – BMC Microbiology

“Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that these communities were dominated after 14 days by the genera Arcobacter and Colwellia “

Water microbiome

Picky, hungry eaters in the cold: persistent substrate selectivity among polar pelagic microbial communities – Andrew D. Steen and Carol Arnosti – Frontiers in Microbiology

“The purpose of this study was to investigate potential factors preventing hydrolysis of pullulan in Svalbard fjord waters. “

Saltwater intrusion history shapes the response of bacterial communities upon rehydration – Tiffanie M. Nelson – Science of The Total Environment

“Bacterial community composition before and after treatment were measured using next generation sequencing of bacterial DNA. “

Diversity of marine microbes in a changing Mediterranean Sea – Gian Marco Luna – Rendiconti Lincei

“This review aims at summarizing the knowledge on microbial diversity in the basin, by focusing on prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) in pelagic and benthic habitats. “

First evidence of amoebae – mycobacteria association in drinking water network – Vincent Delafont – Environmental Science & Technology

“Direct Sanger sequencing as well as pyrosequencing of environmental isolates demonstrated the frequent association of mycobacteria and FLA”

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Non-human microbiome digest, September 15, 2014

Microbiomes of seals, sheep, pigs, raw milk, cheese, rubber, ocean, freshwater, acid mine drainage, deepsea basalt, and insects.

Mammal microbiome

Isolated faecal bacterial communities found for Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, at White Island, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica – Jonathan C. Banks – Polar Biology

“Here, we used 16S sequences obtained from clone libraries to characterise the faecal microbiota of Weddell seals breeding in McMurdo Sound and at White Island, Antarctica.”

Study of methanogen communities associated with different rumen protozoal populations – Alejandro Belanche – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally-faunated sheep and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microbes) were generated by sequential filtration. “

Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine – Devin B. Holman and Martin R. Chénier – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing.”

Development of a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive analysis of ruminal bacterial communities – M. Kim – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The utility of the RumenBactArray was tested using fractionated rumen samples obtained from sheep fed two different diets.”

Characterization of the Fecal Microbiota of Pigs before and after Inoculation with “Brachyspira hampsonii” – Matheus O. Costa – PLOS ONE

“Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at −8, −5, −3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination.”

Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics – Hsiao-Pei Lu – Scientific Reports

“We analyzed bacterial communities of six distinct gut sites (the food bolus and mucus layer of the proximal small intestine, cecum and distal large intestine), using wild folivorous flying squirrels.”

Insect microbiome

Dynamics of midgut microflora and dengue virus impact on life history traits in Aedes aegypti – Casey L. Hill – Acta Tropica

“Here we investigated the effects of the midgut microbial environment and dengue infection on several fitness characteristics among three strains of the primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. “

Anterior Foregut Microbiota of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Explored Using Deep 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing from Individual Insects – Elizabeth E. Rogers – PLOS ONE

Here, a survey of microbiota associated with the GWSS anterior foregut was conducted.”

The bacterial microbiota of Stolotermes ruficeps (Stolotermitidae), a phylogenetically basal termite endemic to New Zealand – Nicola M. Reid – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We identified core bacterial taxa involved in gut processes through combined DNA- and RNA (cDNA)-based pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA from five S. ruficeps colonies.”

Sponge and coral microbiome

Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum – Michel R. Z. Passarini – Journal of Basic Microbiology

“The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches.”

Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges – Mohd Azrul Naim – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“In this study, we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments.”

Plant microbiome

Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties – M. Salomez – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation.”

Soils, sediments, and rocks microbiomes

A role for biotic filtering in driving phylogenetic clustering in soil bacterial communities – Marta Goberna – Global Ecology and Biogeography

“Here, we used phylogeny-based methods to discern whether the coexistence of evolutionarily related soil bacteria results from abiotic and/or biotic filtering.”

Microbial community composition and in-silico predicted metabolic potential reflect biogeochemical gradients between distinct peatland types – Zuzana Urbanová and Jiří Bárta – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“..we investigated biogeochemical parameters and microbial community composition in a bog, a fen and two SSF using high throughput barcoded sequencing of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) variable region V4.”

Deep-biosphere consortium of fungi and prokaryotes in Eocene subseafloor basalts – S. Bengtson – Geobiology

“We report here a consortium of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic micro-organisms, occupying cavities in deep-drilled vesicular basalt from the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean, 67.5 m below seafloor (mbsf). “

Endolithic bacterial communities in rock coatings from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland – Cassandra L. Marnocha – FEMS Microbiology and Ecology

“Using 454 Roche pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, nine rock coating samples from three different coating mineralogies were sequenced. “

Water microbiome

Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters – Sonja Oberbeckmann – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location”

Biogeographic patterns in ocean microbes emerge in a neutral agent-based model – Ferdi L. Hellweger – Science

“We quantify the role of neutral processes by simulating division, mutation, and death of 100,000 individual marine bacteria cells with full 1 million–base-pair genomes in a global surface ocean circulation model. “

Microbial gardening in the ocean’s twilight zone: Detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus – Daniel J. Mayor – BioEssays

“Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of ‘microbial gardening’, a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the ‘gardener’s’ access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life.”

Diversity and spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial communities: physicochemical and other drivers along an acid mine drainage – Aurélie Volant – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“… biodiversity and spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial communities were characterized using T-RFLP fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing. “

Diversity and activity of marine bacterioplankton during a diatom bloom in the North Sea assessed by total RNA and pyrotag sequencing – Anna Klindworth – Marine Genomics

“In this study we re-analyzed samples from the initial study by total community RNA (metatranscriptomics) and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.”

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Coastal Bacterial Community Abundance and Diversity – Angeliki Marietou and Douglas H. Bartlett – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Culturable high-pressure-surviving bacteria were obtained and found to be phylogenetically similar to isolates from cold and/or deep-sea environments. “

A high-throughput sequencing ecotoxicology study of freshwater bacterial communities and their responses to tebuconazole – Noémie Pascault – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously exposed sites than in pristine sites.”

Food Microbiology

Microbial Ecology Dynamics Reveal a Succession in the Core Microbiota Involved in the Ripening of Pasta Filata Caciocavallo Pugliese Cheese – Ilaria De Pasquale – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, community-level physiological profiles made with Biolog EcoPlates, proteolysis, and volatile component (VOC) analyses were mainly used to characterize the manufacture and ripening of the pasta filata cheese Caciocavallo Pugliese.”

Tracing the origin of raw milk from farm by using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting of microbiota – Maria Feligini – Food Control

“A total of 64 markers within the range 279–756 bp were detected on the thirty-eight bulk milk samples, none of which was common to all the patterns. “

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Non-human microbiome, August 19, 2014

A very diverse mix today: kangaroo, rumen, Daphnia, ticks, corals, rice, switchgrass, drinking water, acid mine drainage, rocks, soil microbiomes.

Mammal microbiome

Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing – Scott Godwin – ISME Journal

“Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos”

Temporal dynamics of fibrolytic and methanogenic rumen microorganisms during in situ incubation of switchgrass determined by 16S rRNA gene profiling – Hailan Piao – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Here we investigated the temporal succession of microbial taxa and its effect on fiber composition during rumen incubation using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.”

Arthropod microbiome

Bacterial epibionts of Daphnia: a potential route for the transfer of dissolved organic carbon in freshwater food webs – Ester M Eckert and Jakob Pernthaler – ISME Journal

“We analysed the activity and identity of bacterial epibionts in cultures of Daphnia galeata and of natural daphnid populations.”

Evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in Ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of Norway
Erik G. Granquist – Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

“Five different species; M. mitochondrii, W. pipientis, Borrelia spp., Rickettia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, were analyzed on a 7500 Fast Real-time PCR system (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), and carried out in separate 96-wells reaction plates. “

Coral microbiome

New insights into Oculina patagonica coral diseases and their associated Vibrio spp. communities – Esther Rubio-Portillo – ISME Journal

“….we have analysed the seasonal patterns of the culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and diseased O. patagonica colonies. “

Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan – Hideyuki Yamashiro – Nature Scientific Reports

“In addition to the cyanobacterium–shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom.”

Not just who, but how many: the importance of partner abundance in reef coral symbioses – Ross Cunning and Andrew C. Baker – Frontiers in Microbiology

“…we generate testable hypotheses regarding the importance of symbiont abundance by first discussing different metrics and their potential links to symbiosis performance and breakdown, and then describing how natural variability and dynamics of symbiont communities may help explain ecological patterns on coral reefs and predict responses to environmental change.”

Plant microbiome

Phylogeny and Functions of Bacterial Communities Associated with Field-Grown Rice Shoots – Takashi Okubo – Microbes and Environments

“Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath.”

Reviving of the endophytic bacterial community as a putative mechanism of plant resistance – Olga Podolich – Plant and Soil

“Based on the published results, we suggest that the endophyte-mediated stress tolerance or disease resistance can develop, if the plant hosts a sufficient diversity of ‘protective’ endophytes. “

The rhizosphere microbiota of plant invaders: an overview of recent advances in the microbiomics of invasive plants – Vanessa C. Coats, Mary E. Rumpho – Frontiers in Microbiology

“This review discusses recent advances in invasive plant biology that have resulted from microbiome analyses as well as the microbial factors that direct plant fitness and adaptability in natural systems.”

Kelp forest size alters microbial community structure and function on Vancouver Island, Canada – Jessica Liz Clasen and Jonathan B. Shurin – Ecology

“We investigated the response of microbial communities to variation in kelp abundance between regions with and without sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada”

Soil, sediments, rocks

* Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest – Neslihan Taş – ISME Journal

“We measured geochemistry, GHG fluxes, potential soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure via 16SrRNA gene and metagenome sequencing.”

Integrated Metagenomics and Metatranscriptomics Analyses of Root-Associated Soil from Transgenic Switchgrass – Archana Chauhan – Genome Announcements

“Here we report metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of root-associated soil from COMT switchgrass compared with nontransgenic counterparts.”

Abiotic stress tolerance and competition-related traits underlie phylogenetic clustering in soil bacterial communities – Marta Goberna – Ecology Letters

“We examined the distribution of 15 traits and 3290 bacterial taxa in 28 plots. Communities showed a marked functional response to the environment. “

Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments – Meiying Xu – ISME Journal

“Here we analyzed sediment microbial communities from a field-scale in situ bioremediation site, a creek in Pearl River Delta containing a variety of contaminants “

Occurrence and expression of bacterial human virulence gene homologues in natural soil bacteria – Ditte A. Søborg – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“The presence and in vitro expression of homologues to 22 bacterial human virulence determinants amongst culturable soil bacteria was investigated.”

Endolithic bacterial communities in rock coatings from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland – Cassandra L. Marnocha – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Using 454 Roche pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA gene, nine rock coating samples from three different coating mineralogies were sequenced.”

Biodegradation Potential of Organically Enriched Sediments under Sulfate- and Iron-Reducing Conditions as Revealed by the 16S rRNA Deep Sequencing – Tomoyuki Hori – Journal of Water and Environment Technology

“The effects of supplementation with sulfate and lepidocrocite (a crystalline Fe[III] oxide) on the structure and activity of the slurry microorganisms were examined by the combined physicochemical analyses and 16S rRNA deep sequencing. “

Soil bacterial diversity in degraded and restored lands of Northeast Brazil – Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

“In this study we compare the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in degraded and restored lands in Northeast Brazil and determine the soil biological and chemical properties influencing bacterial communities. “

Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters with and without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA
A.C. Mumford – Science of the Total Environment

“The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. “

Water, wastewater, sludge microbiome

* A comprehensive insight into bacterial virulence in drinking water using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing – Kailong Huang – Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

“In order to comprehensively investigate bacterial virulence in drinking water, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential pathogenic bacteria and virulence factors (VFs) in a full-scale drinking water treatment and distribution system. “

A high-throughput sequencing ecotoxicology study of freshwater bacterial communities and their responses to tebuconazole – Pascault Noémie – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously-exposed sites than in pristine sites.”

Disturbance and temporal partitioning of the activated sludge metacommunity – David C Vuono – ISME Journal

“Bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were surveyed from sludge samples resulting in a sequence library of >417 000 SSU rRNA genes. “

Review: Environmental bacteriophages: viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems – Télesphore Sime-Ngando – Frontiers in Microbiology

“The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology,”

* Inter-species interconnections in acid mine drainage microbial communities
Luis R. Comolli and Jill F. Banfield – Frontiers in Microbiology

Here, we present cryogenic transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM) 2D images and 3D tomographic datasets for archaeal species from natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. “

A study on the microbial community structure in oil reservoirs developed by water flooding – Lin Junzhang – Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering

“This study was performed to identify the microbial community structures in 10 different types of water-flooded oil reservoirs on Sinopec Shengli Oil Field. “

Microbes of the built environment

* Microbial Existence in Controlled Habitats and Their Resistance to Space Conditions – Kasthuri Venkateswaran – Microbes and Environments

“In this review, we discussed the presence of microbes in space research-related closed habitats and the resistance of some microbial species to the extreme environmental conditions of space.”

Microbial Monitoring of Crewed Habitats in Space—Current Status and Future Perspectives – Nobuyasu Yamaguchi – Microbes and Environments

“In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed.”

Food microbiology

Investigation of bacterial and fungal diversity in tarag using high-throughput sequencing
Zhihong Sun – Journal of Dairy Science

“This is the first study on the bacterial and fungal community diversity in 17 tarag samples (naturally fermented dairy products) through a metagenomic approach involving high-throughput pyrosequencing. “

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Non-human microbiome, July 21

Microbiomes of water fleas, marine zooplankton, soil, rumen, and how a microbiome can help woodrats eat toxic plants.

Rumen microbiome

Development of a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive analysis of ruminal bacterial communities – M. Kim – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“A total of 1,666 OTU-specific probes were designed and synthesized on microarray slides (referred to as RumenBactArray) in a 6×5k format with each probe being represented in triplicate.”

Rodent microbiome

Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins – Kevin D. Kohl – Ecology Letters

“We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations of which specialise on highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes are crucial in allowing herbivores to consume toxic plants. “

Crustacean microbiome

Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction – Marilou P Sison-Mangus – ISME Journal

“We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth, survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria-bearing counterparts.”

Soil microbiome

Soil Properties and Spatial Processes Influence Bacterial Metacommunities within a Grassland Restoration Experiment – Cheryl A. Murphy – Restoration Ecology

“We found that soil bacterial communities were not influenced by plant restoration, but rather, by the local heterogeneity of soil environmental properties (16.9% of bacterial community variation) and pure spatial effects (11.1%).”

Environmental drivers of soil microbial community distribution at the Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory – Myrto Tsiknia – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“This study investigates the distribution of archaea, bacteria and fungi as well as the dominant bacterial phyla (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes), and classes of Proteobacteria (α- and β-Proteobacteria) across the Koiliaris watershed by qPCR and associate them with environmental variables. “

Soil microbial community structure and activity along a montane elevational gradient on the Tibetan Plateau – Meng Xu – European Journal of Soil Biology

“We investigated the microbial community composition and functional patterns along an elevational gradient (3100–4600 m above sea level) on Mount Segrila using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and community level physiological profiles (CLPP). “

Oil pipeline microbiome

Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces – Tiffany R. Lenhart – The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research

“Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed ‘cookies,’ revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. “

Plankton microbiome

Zooplankton diversity across three Red Sea reefs using pyrosequencing – John K. Pearman – Frontiers in Marine Science

“The diversity of metazoan plankton was investigated by targeting the 18S rRNA gene and clustering OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. A total of 754 and 854 metazoan OTUs were observed in the data set for the 1380F and 1389F primer sets respectively. “

Food microbiology

Cheese Rind Communities Provide Tractable Systems for In Situ and In Vitro Studies of Microbial Diversity – Benjamin E. Wolfe – Cell

“Sequencing of 137 different rind communities across 10 countries revealed 24 widely distributed and culturable genera of bacteria and fungi as dominant community members. “

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