Microbiome digest, October 21, 2014

Human oral microbiome

Abstract 4834: Microbiome in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Deepak Saxena – Cancer Research

“PCR amplicons targeting V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. “

Human respiratory microbiome

Microbial Communities in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – HeeKuk Park – PLOS ONE

“To account for the qualitative and quantitative diversity of the 16S rRNA gene in the oropharynx, the microbiomes of 18 asthma patients, 17 COPD patients, and 12 normal individuals were assessed using a high-throughput next-generation sequencing analysis.”

Human gut microbiome

Decreased bacterial diversity characterizes an altered gut microbiota in psoriatic arthritis and resembles dysbiosis of inflammatory bowel disease – Jose U. Scher – Arthritis & Rheumatology

“High-throughput 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was utilized to compare community composition of gut microbiota in PsA patients, subjects with psoriasis of the skin and healthy, matched-controls. “

Pregnancy and birth

The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin in Early Life: Diverse Roles in Amniotic Fluid and in the Infant Intestine – Martin Parnov Reichhardt – Journal of Immunology

“The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces of infants. “

Animal microbiome

* Unique and shared responses of the gut microbiota to prolonged fasting: a comparative study across five classes of vertebrate hosts – Kevin D. Kohl – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We used 16S rRNA sequencing to document changes in colonic and cecal microbiomes of animals representing five classes of vertebrates at four time points through prolonged fasting: tilapia, toads, geckos, quail, and mice. “

GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (HMA, LMA) and seawater – Kristina Bayer – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“By use of GeoChip, altogether 20,273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified”

Natural volcanic CO2 seeps reveal future trajectories for host–microbial associations in corals and sponges – Kathleen M Morrow – ISME Journal

“The corals Acropora millepora and Porites cylindrica were less abundant and hosted significantly different microbial communities at the CO2 seep than at nearby control sites <500 m away.”
Plant microbiome

Phylogenetic conservatism in plant-soil feedback and its implications for plant abundance – Brian L. Anacke – Ecology Letters

“We conclude that soil biota influence the abundance of close plant relatives in nature.”

Bioreactor microbiome

Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome – Edward V. LaBelle – PLOS ONE

“Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). “

Metagenomics / Transcriptomics / Bioinformatics

Census-based rapid and accurate metagenome taxonomic profiling – Amirhossein Shamsaddini – BMC Genomics

“We have developed a robust subsampling-based algorithm implemented in a tool called CensuScope meant to take a ‘sneak peak’ into the population distribution and estimate taxonomic composition as if a census was taken of the metagenomic landscape. “

Metatranscriptomes from diverse microbial communities: assessment of data reduction techniques for rigorous annotation – Andrew Toseland – BMC Genomics

“To investigate the effect of such techniques on the annotation of metatranscriptome data we assess two commonly employed methods: clustering and de-novo assembly. To do this, we also developed an approach to simulate 454 and Illumina metatranscriptome data sets with varying degrees of taxonomic diversity. “

Microbial Ecology

Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Community Dynamics: A Methodological Review – Hyun-Seob Song – Processes

“In this article, we provide an overview of mathematical tools that include not only current mainstream approaches, but also less traditional approaches that, in our opinion, can be potentially useful. “

A phylogenetic perspective on species diversity, β-diversity, and biogeography for the microbial world – Albert Barberán† and Emilio O. Casamayor – Molecular Ecology

“We explored links between evolution/phylogeny and community ecology using bacterial 16S rRNA gene information from a high altitude lakes district dataset to describe phylogenetic community composition, spatial distribution, and β-diversity and biogeographical patterns applying evolutionary relatedness without relying on any particular operational taxonomic unit definition.”

Distance-Decay and Taxa-Area Relationships for Bacteria, Archaea and Methanogenic Archaea in a Tropical Lake Sediment – Davi Pedroni Barreto – PLOS ONE

“The samples were analyzed using T-RFLP (Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) targeting mcrA (coding for a subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase) and the genes of Archaeal and Bacterial 16S rRNA.”

More microbiology

From Denise Monack’s lab: Role of disease-associated tolerance in infectious superspreaders – Smita Gopinath – PNAS USA

“Using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we show that levels of Salmonella are equivalent between antibiotic-treated superspreader and nonsuperspreader hosts; however, superspreader hosts are uniquely able to tolerate antibiotic treatment, unlike nonsuperspreader hosts. “

*Also see:  Antibiotics may help Salmonella spread in infected animals, scientists learn – Stanford Medicine News

Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes – Xindan Wang, David Z Rudner – Current Opinion in Microbiology

“Here, we summarize these different patterns highlighting similarities and differences and discuss the protein factors that help establish and maintain them.”

Bacterial healers: Microbes can redeem themselves to fight disease – Susan Gaidos – Science News

“It’s just a matter of time before bacterial-based treatments become a routine part of a doctor’s toolkit, says microbiologist Robert Britton of the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, who is studying the relationship between microbes and human health. “

Techniques

Rapid fingerprinting of methanogenic communities by high-resolution melting analysis – Jaai Kim, Changsoo Lee – Bioresource Technology

“The new method produced robust community clustering and ordination results comparable to the results from the commonly used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) performed in parallel.”

Microbes in the news

Our unique ‘microbial aura’ travels with us wherever we go – Science Friday – PRI

“Unless you lived exactly the same life as me, you would not have the same microbiome. You are, in essence, microbially unique,” explains Jack Gilbert

We’re making a Microbiome Documentary Series and could use your Help – Jamie – Reddit

“My name’s Jamie and I’m part of a team trying to crowdfund a documentary series on the human microbiome titled: ‘Redefining Human’.”

Building houses with bacteria – Euronews

“Houses of the future could be partially built with bacteria. It sounds like science fiction but researchers involved in an EU-backed project in Madrid are working towards making this a concrete reality.”

Bik’s Picks

The Role of Surface Chemistry in Adhesion and Wetting of Gecko Toe Pads – Ila Badge – Scientific Reports

“As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass).”

Scientists prepare for an 8-month mission to Mars – on Earth soil- BetaWired

“There’s a new experiment commencing in Hawaii, and the results will help NASA better prepare its astronauts for a lengthy mission to Mars.”

White rhino subspecies is down to one breeding male – Andrea James – BoingBoing

“Sad news from Kenya: the northern white rhino subspecies is down to one breeding male with the death of Suni this month. Only six remain.”

Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies – ScienceDirect

“Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears.”

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Human microbiome digest, October 2, 2014

Catching up after some long days of paper writing. Lots of microbiome papers in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, microbiome and Lupus, and biography of skin microbiome.

General (human) microbiome

The Journal of Clinical Investigation has a microbiome issue this month (all behind a subscription wall). Titles include:

The microbiome revolution – Martin J. Blaser
Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis – Cynthia L. Sears, Abby L. Geis, Franck Housseau
Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of therapeutic and diet-derived xenobiotics – Rachel N. Carmody, Peter J. Turnbaugh
Clostridium difficile and the microbiota – Anna M. Seekatz, Vincent B. Young
The microbial basis of inflammatory bowel diseases – Sushila R. Dalal, Eugene B. Chang
Deciphering the tête-à-tête between the microbiota and the immune system – Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper
The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease – W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen
Antibiotics and the gut microbiota – Sheetal R. Modi, James J. Collins, David A. Relman

When, where and how does microbial community composition matter? – Diana R. Nemergut*, Ashley Shade and Cyrille Violle – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Several papers in this special issue, “The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure,” use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. “

The bacteriome-mycobiome interaction and antifungal host defense – Jaap ten Oever and Mihai G. Netea – European Journal of Immunology

“In this review, we describe the role of the bacterial microbiome in antifungal host defense.”

Richness and diversity of mammalian fungal communities shape innate and adaptive immunity in health and disease – Lisa Rizzetto – European Journal of Immunology

“In this review, we describe the ecology and the human niches of our fungal “fellow travelers” in both health and disease, discriminating between passengers, colonizers and pathogens based on the interaction of these fungi with the human immune system.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women
Matthew S Payne – BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

“Second trimester amniocentesis for measurement of inflammatory markers and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was not indicative of risk of preterm birth, at least in these populations.”

Human oral microbiome

Tongue images and tongue coating microbiome in patients with Colorectal Cancer -Shuwen Han – Microbial Pathogenesis

“To evaluate the differences of tongue images and tongue coating microbiome between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy people.”

Hydrogen Sulfide Production from subgingival plaque samples – A. Basic, G. Dahlén – Anaerobe

“The Karen population studied in Northern Thailand showed poor oral hygiene, general gingivitis and moderate periodontal destruction and little tooth loss.”

Italian-style gluten-free diet changes the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African (Saharawi) celiac children – Ruggiero Francavilla – Digestive and Liver Disease

Human skin microbiome

* Microbiology: An integrated view of the skin microbiome – Patrick D. Schloss – Nature

Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome – Julia Oh – Nature

“Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. “

Human respiratory microbiome

Sinus culture poorly predicts resident microbiota – Leah J. Hauser – International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology

“Ethmoid samples from 54 CRS patients collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by both clinical culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The association between 16S relative abundance and detection by culture was determined using logistic regression.”

Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage in a Random Sample of Non-Hospitalized Adult Population in Northern Germany – Jaishri Mehraj – PLOS ONE

“A total of 2026 potential participants were randomly selected through the resident’s registration office and invited by mail. They were requested to collect a nasal swab at home and return it by mail. S. aureus was identified by culture and PCR. “

Severity-related changes of bronchial microbiome in COPD – Marian Garcia-Nunez – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“Bronchial microbiome of COPD patients was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing in sputum samples obtained during stability. “

Human gut microbiome

* Intestinal Dysbiosis Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Arancha Hevia – mBio

“A group of 20 SLE patients in remission, for which there was strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, was recruited, and we used an optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis protocol to decipher the fecal microbial profiles of these patients and compare them with those of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects.”

Systems Biology Analysis of Omeprazole Therapy in Cirrhosis Demonstrates Significant Shifts in Gut Microbiota Composition and Function – Jasmohan Singh Bajaj- American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

“15 compensated cirrhotics and 15 age-matched controls underwent serum gastrin measurement, stool microbiota profiling with multi-tagged pyrosequencing and urinary metabolic profiling with NMR spectroscopy to assess microbial co-metabolites before/after a 14-day course of 40mg/day omeprazole under constant diet conditions’

The Impact of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Daniel E. Freedberg – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

The intestinal microbiota and allergic asthma – Marie-Claire Arrietaa, Brett Finlay- Journal of Infection

“By describing some of the most relevant human and animal studies in this field, we explore the concept that significant perturbations of the intestinal and perhaps the lung microbiota are a cause of allergic asthma.”

Minireview: Linking genetic variation in human Toll-like receptor 5 genes to the gut microbiome’s potential to cause inflammation – Cynthia A. Leifer – Immunology Letters

“Loss of TLR5 has profound effects on the microbiota that include greater temporal instability of major lineages and upregulation of flagellar motility genes that may be linked to the reduced levels of anti-flagellin antibodies in the TLR5-/- host.”

A Little O2 May Go a Long Way in Structuring the GI Microbiome – Thomas M. Schmidt, John Y. Kao – Gastroenterology

Microbiome, Innate Immunity, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma – Jonathan Baghdadi – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

Animal models of microbiome research

Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota – Seth Rakoff-Nahoum & Laurie E. Comstock – Nature – belongs to:

Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host–commensal symbiosis in sickness – Joseph M. Pickard – Nature

“We hypothesized that the host might utilize internal resources to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease.”

Bacteria from Diverse Habitats Colonize and Compete in the Mouse Gut – Henning Seedorf – Cell

“Microbiota from diverse habitats colonize and compete in the guts of gnotobiotic mice”

Dynamics of gut microbiota in autoimmune lupus – Husen Zhang – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“We investigated the effects of host genetics, sex, age, and dietary intervention on the gut microbiome in a murine lupus model.”

Clostridium ramosum Promotes High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Gnotobiotic Mouse Models – Anni Woting – mBio

“To clarify the possible obesogenic potential of this bacterial species and to unravel the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of C. ramosum in obesity development in gnotobiotic mice.”

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Microbiome digest, August 28, 2014

Cool new study today by Jack Gilbert on the bacteria living in our homes, what happens to you microbiome after you die, (gut) microbiome and respiratory diseases, lots of water studies, and Bik’s Picks.

General  human microbiome 

* Your death microbiome could catch your killer – Anna Williams – NewScientist

“These “friendly” bacteria adhere to the lining of the gut and keep the microbial villains at bay by outcompeting them. After we die, however, our gut flora have a party.“

Human respiratory microbiome

The Microbiome and the Lung – Lijia Cui – Annals of the American Thoracic Society

“In this review, we provide an overview of the basics of microbiome studies.”

Microbiome Diversity and Asthma and Allergy Risk – Antje Legatzki – Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

“In this review, we will discuss the available literature concerning the human microbiota and asthma and allergy development and occurrence. “

Gut microbiome

You waited for it: The journal Helicobacter has a Helicobacter special!
Gastric and Enterohepatic Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori
Armelle Ménard – Helicobacter

“Several studies highlighted the virulence of non-H. pylori species including H. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or H. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with intestinal adenocarcinoma. “

Pregnancy and birth

Systemic Inflammation in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn Following Maternal Genitourinary Infections – Raina N. Fichorova – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

“Mothers of 914 infants born before 28th gestation week reported cervical/vaginal infection (CVI), and/or urine/bladder/kidney infection (UTI), or neither. Inflammation proteins measured in baby’s blood”

Animal models of microbiome research

Intestinal Microbial Variation May Predict Early Acute Rejection after Liver Transplantation in Rats – Ren, Zhigang – Transplantation

“cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed the 7AR and 3AR groups clustered together with 73.4% similarity, suggesting that intestinal microbiota was more sensitive than hepatic function in responding to AR.”

Microbiology of the built environment

* Longitudinal analysis of microbial interaction between humans and the indoor environment – Simon Lax – Science

“Microbial communities associated with seven families and their homes over 6 weeks were assessed, including three families that moved their home. “

* Sloan Microbiology of the Built Environment Data Analysis Workshop (secrets of QIIME, VAMPS and QIITA) January 6-7, 2015 – Jonathan Eisen – MicroBEnet

“to learn hands-on how to use these tools on their own data, to perform meta-analyses that combine built environment datasets“

Water microbiome

Microbial weeds in hypersaline habitats: the enigma of the weed-like Haloferax mediterranei – Aharon Oren and John E. Hallsworth – FEMS Microbiology Letters

“Here, we discuss the enigma of the less abundant Haloferax mediterranei, an archaeon that grows faster than any other, comparable extreme halophile.”

Bacterial profiling in brine samples of the Emalahleni Water Reclamation Plant, South Africa, using 454-pyrosequencing method – Sudharshan Sekar – FEMS Microbiology Letters

“A metagenomic approach was applied using 454-pyrosequencing data analysis for the profiling of bacterial communities in the brine samples of the water reclamation plant. “

The role of dispersal mode and habitat specialisation in metacommunity structuring of aquatic macroinvertebrates in isolated spring fens – Vanda Rádková – Freshwater Biology

“We applied two species categorisations, common/rare and generalists/specialists, to disentangle the roles of dispersal capacity and habitat specialisation.”

Shifts in archaeaplankton community structure along ecological gradients of Pearl Estuary – Jiwen Liu – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Using 454 pyrosequencing, the present study examined the archaeal communities along a subtropical estuary, Pearl Estuary, China. “

Soil microbiome

The Effects of Radiation Pollution on the Population Diversities and Metabolic Characteristics of Soil Microorganisms – Meiying Gu – Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

“Microbial diversities were determined by using methods of cultured isolates and carbon source utilization on Biolog EcoPlate™. “

Bik’s Picks

A chocolate habit in ancient North America – Michael Bawaya – Science

“the findings suggest regular trade in cacao—and movements of the people who imbued it with significance—between ancient Mesoamericans and their northern neighbors, says Dorothy Washburn, an archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology “

Babies may be good at remembering, and forgetting – Laura Sanders – Science News

“over 20 percent of 5-year-olds and 8- to 9-year olds recounted events from their first year, some from the very first months of life.”

How the zebrafish gets its stripes: Uncovering how beautiful color patterns can develop in animals – Science Daily

Three major pigment cell types, black cells, reflective silvery cells, and yellow cells emerge during growth in the skin of the tiny juvenile fish and arrange as a multi-layered mosaic to compose the characteristic color pattern. “

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