Human microbiome digest, October 2, 2014

Catching up after some long days of paper writing. Lots of microbiome papers in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, microbiome and Lupus, and biography of skin microbiome.

General (human) microbiome

The Journal of Clinical Investigation has a microbiome issue this month (all behind a subscription wall). Titles include:

The microbiome revolution – Martin J. Blaser
Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis – Cynthia L. Sears, Abby L. Geis, Franck Housseau
Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of therapeutic and diet-derived xenobiotics – Rachel N. Carmody, Peter J. Turnbaugh
Clostridium difficile and the microbiota – Anna M. Seekatz, Vincent B. Young
The microbial basis of inflammatory bowel diseases – Sushila R. Dalal, Eugene B. Chang
Deciphering the tête-à-tête between the microbiota and the immune system – Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper
The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease – W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen
Antibiotics and the gut microbiota – Sheetal R. Modi, James J. Collins, David A. Relman

When, where and how does microbial community composition matter? – Diana R. Nemergut*, Ashley Shade and Cyrille Violle – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Several papers in this special issue, “The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure,” use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. “

The bacteriome-mycobiome interaction and antifungal host defense – Jaap ten Oever and Mihai G. Netea – European Journal of Immunology

“In this review, we describe the role of the bacterial microbiome in antifungal host defense.”

Richness and diversity of mammalian fungal communities shape innate and adaptive immunity in health and disease – Lisa Rizzetto – European Journal of Immunology

“In this review, we describe the ecology and the human niches of our fungal “fellow travelers” in both health and disease, discriminating between passengers, colonizers and pathogens based on the interaction of these fungi with the human immune system.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women
Matthew S Payne – BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

“Second trimester amniocentesis for measurement of inflammatory markers and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was not indicative of risk of preterm birth, at least in these populations.”

Human oral microbiome

Tongue images and tongue coating microbiome in patients with Colorectal Cancer -Shuwen Han – Microbial Pathogenesis

“To evaluate the differences of tongue images and tongue coating microbiome between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy people.”

Hydrogen Sulfide Production from subgingival plaque samples – A. Basic, G. Dahlén – Anaerobe

“The Karen population studied in Northern Thailand showed poor oral hygiene, general gingivitis and moderate periodontal destruction and little tooth loss.”

Italian-style gluten-free diet changes the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African (Saharawi) celiac children – Ruggiero Francavilla – Digestive and Liver Disease

Human skin microbiome

* Microbiology: An integrated view of the skin microbiome – Patrick D. Schloss – Nature

Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome – Julia Oh – Nature

“Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. “

Human respiratory microbiome

Sinus culture poorly predicts resident microbiota – Leah J. Hauser – International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology

“Ethmoid samples from 54 CRS patients collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by both clinical culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The association between 16S relative abundance and detection by culture was determined using logistic regression.”

Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage in a Random Sample of Non-Hospitalized Adult Population in Northern Germany – Jaishri Mehraj – PLOS ONE

“A total of 2026 potential participants were randomly selected through the resident’s registration office and invited by mail. They were requested to collect a nasal swab at home and return it by mail. S. aureus was identified by culture and PCR. “

Severity-related changes of bronchial microbiome in COPD – Marian Garcia-Nunez – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“Bronchial microbiome of COPD patients was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing in sputum samples obtained during stability. “

Human gut microbiome

* Intestinal Dysbiosis Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Arancha Hevia – mBio

“A group of 20 SLE patients in remission, for which there was strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, was recruited, and we used an optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis protocol to decipher the fecal microbial profiles of these patients and compare them with those of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects.”

Systems Biology Analysis of Omeprazole Therapy in Cirrhosis Demonstrates Significant Shifts in Gut Microbiota Composition and Function – Jasmohan Singh Bajaj- American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

“15 compensated cirrhotics and 15 age-matched controls underwent serum gastrin measurement, stool microbiota profiling with multi-tagged pyrosequencing and urinary metabolic profiling with NMR spectroscopy to assess microbial co-metabolites before/after a 14-day course of 40mg/day omeprazole under constant diet conditions’

The Impact of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Daniel E. Freedberg – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

The intestinal microbiota and allergic asthma – Marie-Claire Arrietaa, Brett Finlay- Journal of Infection

“By describing some of the most relevant human and animal studies in this field, we explore the concept that significant perturbations of the intestinal and perhaps the lung microbiota are a cause of allergic asthma.”

Minireview: Linking genetic variation in human Toll-like receptor 5 genes to the gut microbiome’s potential to cause inflammation – Cynthia A. Leifer – Immunology Letters

“Loss of TLR5 has profound effects on the microbiota that include greater temporal instability of major lineages and upregulation of flagellar motility genes that may be linked to the reduced levels of anti-flagellin antibodies in the TLR5-/- host.”

A Little O2 May Go a Long Way in Structuring the GI Microbiome – Thomas M. Schmidt, John Y. Kao – Gastroenterology

Microbiome, Innate Immunity, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma – Jonathan Baghdadi – Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

Animal models of microbiome research

Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota – Seth Rakoff-Nahoum & Laurie E. Comstock – Nature – belongs to:

Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host–commensal symbiosis in sickness – Joseph M. Pickard – Nature

“We hypothesized that the host might utilize internal resources to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease.”

Bacteria from Diverse Habitats Colonize and Compete in the Mouse Gut – Henning Seedorf – Cell

“Microbiota from diverse habitats colonize and compete in the guts of gnotobiotic mice”

Dynamics of gut microbiota in autoimmune lupus – Husen Zhang – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“We investigated the effects of host genetics, sex, age, and dietary intervention on the gut microbiome in a murine lupus model.”

Clostridium ramosum Promotes High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Gnotobiotic Mouse Models – Anni Woting – mBio

“To clarify the possible obesogenic potential of this bacterial species and to unravel the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of C. ramosum in obesity development in gnotobiotic mice.”

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