Human microbiome digest, June 3, 2014

Antimicrobial proteins in saliva, Lactobacillus spp and preterm birth, and probiotics. It’s been a long day, so no pictures today.

Oral microbiome

Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque – Jennifer Malcolm – Molecular Oral Microbiology

“Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at three-years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, HNPs 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans.”

Pregnancy and birth

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery – Ljubomir Petricevic – Nature Scientific Reports

“This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery”

Development of the preterm gut microbiota in infants at risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis – Christopher Stewart – Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University

Intestinal Microbial Community Profiles of a Newborn Preterm Infant Using Pyrosequencing Analysis: Pilot Study (in Korean)- Jong-Geol Kim – Neonatal Medicine

“The bacterial community in the newborn’s meconium was quite similar to that in the AF, which was dominated by Sphingomonas (45.2%). “

Gut microbiome

Relating the metatranscriptome and metagenome of the human gut – Eric A. Franzosa with Curtis Huttenhower – PNAS

“Measurements of microbial species, gene, and gene transcript composition within self-collected samples were consistent across sampling methods.”

Defining the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in the mammalian gut within the context of environmental eukaryotic diversity – Laura W. Parfrey – Frontiers in Microbiology

“We show that adults from non-western populations harbor a diverse community of protists, and diversity in the human gut is comparable to that in other mammals. “

General human microbiome

Culturing For Cures – UCSF Scientists Explore the Bacterial Communities that Live In and On Our Bodies to Find Treatments for Disease – Claire Conway – UCSF News

“Scientists are hard at work trying to leverage the extraordinary healing powers of the microbiome, mining it for treatments of a variety of conditions, including asthma, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity.”

Probiotics

Autoinducer-2 Plays a Crucial Role in Gut Colonization and Probiotic Functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 – Steven E. A. Christiaen – PLOS ONE

“we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition”

Urinary metabolomic fingerprinting after consumption of a probiotic strain in women with mastitis – Rosa Vázquez-Fresno – Pharmacological Research

“The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the identification of the overall effects of probiotic consumption among women suffering from mastitis and highlighted the potential of this approach in evaluating the outcomes of probiotics consumption.”

Animal models of gut microbiota

Effects of subchronic exposure of silver nanoparticles on intestinal microbiota and gut-associated immune responses in the ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats – Katherine Williams – Nanotoxicology

“This study evaluated changes in the populations of intestinal-microbiota and intestinal-mucosal gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats (both male and female) that were gavaged orally with discrete sizes of AgNP (10, 75 and 110 nm) and silver acetate.”

Metabolomics

Oral Abstract: The high colon cancer risk in African Americans can be reduced by dietary modification – Stephen O’Keefe – Cancer & Metabolism

“dietary switch between these two populations produces reciprocal changes in the microbiome, metabolome, and mucosal biomarkers of risk within 2 weeks”

Strategies in Discovery Metabolomics – Kate Marusina – GenEngNews

Microbiome conferences

2nd World Congress on Targeting Microbiota – Institut Pasteur, Paris, France – October 16-17, 2014

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