Human microbiome, July 8

Female urinary microbiome, stool microbiome and vaccine responses, and gut microbiome in ulcerative colitis patients.

Urinary tract

The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence – Meghan M. Pearce – mBio

“In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. “

Gut microbiome

Stool Microbiota and Vaccine Responses of Infants – M. Nazmul Huda – Pediatrics

“Bifidobacterium predominance may enhance thymic development and responses to both oral and parenteral vaccines early in infancy”

Novel Gut-Based Pharmacology of Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – Antonella Napolitano – PLOS ONE

“Microbiota abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was positively correlated with changes in cholic acid and conjugates, while Bacteroidetes abundance was negatively correlated.”

This one was already published online in September 2013 but it came out in print this week : Commentary: Roseburia hominis: a novel guilty player in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis – Herbert Tilg – Gut

“In recent years evidence was accumulating that the gut microbiota and its manipulation might constitute one of those relevant ‘environmental’ factors. “

A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis – Kathleen Machiels – Gut

“The composition of the fecal microbiota of UC patients differs from that of healthy individuals: we found a reduction in R hominis and F prausnitzii, both well-known butyrate-producing bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum. “

Pregnancy and birth

Direct Evidence for the Presence of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in the Circulation of Breastfed Infants – Karen C. Goehring – PLOS ONE

“At least some ingested HMOs are absorbed intact into the circulation and excreted in the urine and their concentrations in these fluids correlate with levels of the corresponding mother’s milk”

Commentary: More than a gut feeling: predicting surgical necrotising enterocolitis – Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp – Gut

“The paper by Sylvester et al 8 describes a new non-invasive approach of combining clinical data and selected urine peptide biomarkers to develop an algorithm to predict progression of suspected medical NEC to surgical disease. “

refers to: A novel urine peptide biomarker-based algorithm for the prognosis of necrotising enterocolitis in human infants – Karl G Sylvester – Gut

“Ensemble modelling combining clinical parameters with biomarker analysis dramatically improves our ability to identify the population at risk for developing progressive NEC.”

Animal models

Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity – Enusha Karunasena – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex.”

General human microbiome

Phylogenetics and the human microbiome – Frederick A Matsen IV – Submitted to Systematic Biology

“In this paper I review the field and its methods from the perspective of a phylogeneticist, as well as describing current challenges for phylogenetics coming from this type of work.”

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