Microbiome digest, August 18, 2014

Mushroom microbiome, mice fed T7 phages, and uBiome got some money.

Plant microbiome

Comparative analysis of bacterial diversity and communities inhabiting the fairy ring of Tricholoma matsutake by barcoded pyrosequencing – M. Kim – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“The bacterial communities in soil samples collected from inside, beneath and outside the T. matsutake fairy ring were investigated using barcoded pyrosequencing. “

Rhizospheric fungal community structure of a Bt brinjal and a near isogenic variety – A.K. Singh – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“..this study concludes that genetic modification of brinjal crop has minor effect on the fungal community.”

Phages and viruses

Observation of inflammatory responses in mice orally fed with bacteriophage T7 – K. Park – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“A histopathological analysis of tissue samples from the stomach, small intestine and colon revealed no significant pathological change.”

Microbes in the news

GW High students to name bacterium – Maria Hernandez – Pacific Sunday News

“Students from George Washington High School got the opportunity to name a bacterium that was discovered during a historic underwater expedition to the Mariana Trench, which was led by filmmaker James Cameron in 2012.”

uBiome Raises $4.5M From Angel Investors, Andreessen Horowitz To Crowdsource Microbiome Research – Julian Chokkattu – Techcrunch

“uBiome also has the largest private dataset of human microbiome samples in the world, giving participants a quick way to compare what’s in their microbiome to a large group.”

Bik’s Picks

All Things Considered podcast (3 min): Often On The Move, Restless Elephants Are Tough To Count — And Keep Safe – Gregory Warner – NPR

The reason elephants are so hard to protect is the same that makes them so hard to count: They roam — exceptionally far.”

Mapping Cell Fate Conversion via CellNet, a Network Biology Tool – Kevin Mayer – GenEngNews

“The differentiation of engineered stem cells may be imagined as a subway journey, where the genetic equivalents of missing a transfer or getting off at the wrong stop can take your stem cells far off course.”

Camouflage sheet inspired by octopus – Jonathan Webb – BBC Science

“Based on the camouflage abilities of octopuses and cuttlefish, engineers in the US have built a flexible material that changes colour to match its surroundings.”

[hr]

Human microbiome, June 18

Today we “Hover or Cover” the toilet seat, compare uBiome and American Gut results, and learn about bacterial diversity and stem cell transplants, breast milk microbiota, and culturomics.

Microbiome in the news

Screen Shot 2014-06-18 at 10.31.46 PMHere’s the poop on getting your gut microbiome analyzed – Tina Hesman Saey – ScienceNews

“When the second set of gut results came in, I was shocked. The results didn’t match at all with µBiome. “

WATCH: Is it OK to sit on a public toilet seat? – ScienceAlert

“It’s a dilemma we’ve all faced at some point: should you ever let your bum touch a public toilet seat? Thankfully Mitch and Greg from AsapSCIENCE have examined the evidence and come up with the (somewhat surprising) answer in their latest episode.”

Gut Reactions – Claudia Wallis – Scientific American

“Intestinal bacteria may help determine whether we are lean or obese”

10 Things You Need To Know About Your Microbiome – Raphael Kellman – MindBodyGreen

Pregnancy and Birth

Gut and Breast Milk Microbiota and Their Role in the Development of the Immune Function – Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre – Current Pediatrics Reports

“In newborns, the maternal gut microbiota may either come across into the amniotic fluid or secrete factors that enter the amniotic fluid and affect the development of oral tolerance in utero.”

Oral microbiome

Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective
Egija Zaura – Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

“In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained.”

Gut microbiome

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation – Ying Taur – Blood

“Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. “

Culturomics and pyrosequencing evidence of the reduction in gut microbiota diversity in patients with broad-spectrum antibiotics – Grégory Dubourg – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

“Culturomics was performed on four stool samples from patients treated with large-scale antibiotics to assess the diversity of their gut flora in comparison with other culture-dependent studies. Pyrosequencing of the V6 region was also performed and was compared with a control group. “

Screen Shot 2014-06-18 at 10.33.33 PMCharacterization of bacterial community shift in human Ulcerative Colitis
patients revealed by Illumina based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing – Sandeep A Walujkar – Gut Pathogens

“Mucosal microbiota was analyzed by means of 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina high throughput sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine total bacterial abundances.”

Keeping peace with the microbiome: acetate dampens inflammatory cytokine production in intestinal epithelial cells – Nicholas Arpaia – Immunology & Cell Biology

“In this issue, Ishiguro et al.2 show that the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acetate, produced during carbohydrate fermentation by commensal microorganisms in the cecum, is capable of dampening responses within intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and functions by targeting the downstream signaling proteins that are activated on recognition of bacterial flagellin by TLR5”

Respiratory microbiome

A large genomic island allows Neisseria meningitidis to utilize propionic acid, with implications for colonisation of the human nasopharynx – Maria Chiara E. Catenazzi – Molecular Microbiology

“Here we identify a genomic island (the prp gene cluster) in N. meningitidis that enables this species to utilize propionic acid as a supplementary carbon source during growth, particularly under nutrient poor growth conditions. “

Animal and in vitro models of human microbiome

Observation of Inflammatory Responses in Mice Orally Fed with Bacteriophage T7 – Kwangseo Park – Journal of Applied Microbiology

“This study investigated the inflammatory responses in mice fed orally with bacteriophages. The mice were fed with either murine norovirus (MNV) or bacteriophage T7 for 10 days and then sacrificed. “

Development of an oral mucosa model to study host-microbiome interactions during wound healing – Tine De Ryck – Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

“Microbiota derived from oral swabs were cultured on an agar/mucin layer and challenged with monolayers of keratinocytes grown on plastic or collagen type I layers embedded with fibroblasts.”

[hr]