Human microbiome, August 12, 2014

Oral microbiome in Aboriginals, gut microbiome and probiotics.

Human oral microbiome

Age-dependent changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species/phylotypes in healthy gingiva and inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites – Mangala A. Nadkarni – Clinical Oral Investigations

“The aims of the present study were to establish the age-dependent relationship between sub-gingival profiles of 22 Prevotella species/phylotypes in children, adolescents and adults from an isolated Aboriginal community and, further, to use this information to identify Prevotella species that could serve as microbial risk indicators.”

The effect of propidium monoazide treatment on the measured bacterial composition of clinical samples after the use of a mouthwash – R. A. M. Exterkate – Clinical Oral Investigations

“Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this problem, by preventing the amplification of DNA from membrane-damaged cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PMA when measuring compositional shifts in clinical samples after mouthwash use.”

Human gut microbiome

Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms – Joe Alcock – BioEssays

“We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain”

Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness – Yanet Valdez – Trends in Immunology

“Recent findings suggest novel complex mechanisms by which the microbiome impacts immune cell development and differentiation.”

Current Status and Prospects of Intestinal Microbiome Studies – Dong Soo Han – Intest Res

“Evidences have implicated gut microbes in the development of IBD, but no causative microorganisms have been identified.”

Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial – Gabriella C. van Zanten – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“Furthermore, 454 tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. “