Microbiome digest, October 22, 2014

Microbes in the mouth of patients with heart disease, bile and gall bladder microbiome of pigs, precisely restoring resistance to Clostridium difficile infection, and networks between fungi and plants. And don’t forget the solar eclipse tomorrow PM for most of the US.

Human oral microbiome

Microbial Diversity Similarities in Periodontal Pockets and Atheromatous Plaques of Cardiovascular Disease Patients – Wagner Serra e Silva Filho – PLOS ONE

“Subgingival biofilm and coronary balloons used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were collected from 18 subjects presenting with generalized moderate to severe periodontitis and OCAA. DNA was extracted and the gene 16S was amplified, cloned and sequenced.”

Human gut microbiome

Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects – Ling Chun Kong – PLOS ONE

“We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.”

Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men – Anne Salonen – ISME Journal

“Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet.”

Animal models of microbiome research

* Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile – Charlie G. Buffie – Nature

“..we determine that Clostridium scindens, a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating intestinal bacterium, is associated with resistance to C. difficile infection and, upon administration, enhances resistance to infection in a secondary bile acid dependent fashion.”

* Changes in the Bacterial Microbiota in Gut, Blood, and Lungs following Acute LPS Instillation into Mice Lungs – Marc A. Sze – PLOS ONE

“Bacterial microbiota of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and cecum were determined using 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at 4 through 168 hours post-instillation.”

Specific Microbiome Changes in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Injury and Intestinal Inflammation – J. Kirk Harris – PLOS ONE

“Microbiome analysis in the PNALI mouse identified specific alterations within colonic microbiota associated with PNALI and further association of these communities with the lipid composition of the PN solution. “

Animal microbiome

Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs – Esther Jiménez – Microbiology Open

“We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows”

Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia – Petra Videnska – PLOS ONE

“In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. “

Plant microbiome

* Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks – Hirokazu Toju – Nature Communications

“The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. “

Soils and sediments

The long-term adaptation of bacterial communities in metal-contaminated sediments: a metaproteogenomic study – David C. Gillan – Environmental Microbiology

“Two freshwater sites, Férin and MetalEurop, differing by one order of magnitude in metal levels (MetalEurop: 3218 mg Zn kg−1; 913 mg Pb kg−1) were compared by shotgun metaproteogenomics. “

Bioinformatics / metabolomics

* Biogeochemical Typing of Paddy Field by a Data-Driven Approach Revealing Sub-Systems within a Complex Environment – A Pipeline to Filtrate, Organize and Frame Massive Dataset from Multi-Omics Analyses – Diogo M. O. Ogawa – PLOS ONE

“We propose the technique of biogeochemical typing (BGC typing) as a novel methodology to set forth the sub-systems of organismal communities associated to the correlated chemical profiles working within a larger complex environment. “

Estimating coverage in metagenomic data sets and why it matters – Luis M Rodriguez-R and Konstantinos T Konstantinidis – ISME Journal

“We demonstrate here how available solutions can determine the level of sequencing coverage obtained by metagenomic data sets and thus, guide their robust analysis and comparison.”

Immunology

* Fall issue of Stanford Medicine reports on the immune system’s balancing act

“If you want to understand the human immune system, try studying humans — not mice, urges Mark Davis, PhD, in a special report on the immune system in the new issue of Stanford Medicine magazine.”

Bik’s Picks

Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia – Qiaomei Fu – Nature

“the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000–13,000 years before he lived. “

Sky spectacle: Partial solar eclipse coming Thursday – USA Today

“In the afternoon, a partial solar eclipse — where the moon covers a part of the sun — will be visible across much of the USA, barring any pesky clouds that could block the show.”

Go Giants! The Science of Baseball – Exploratorium

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