Microbiome Digest, October 3, 2014

Antibiotics in the first 24 months of life associated with obesity, Giant Pandas are no cul-de-sac, and microbiome and inflammatory disease. And lots of weekend reads!

Pregnancy and birth

Association of Antibiotics in Infancy With Early Childhood Obesity – L. Charles Bailey – JAMA Pediatrics

“Cumulative exposure to antibiotics was associated with later obesity …; this effect was stronger for broad-spectrum antibiotics”

Human gut microbiome

Faecal microbiota composition and host–microbe cross-talk following gastroenteritis and in postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome – Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen – Gut

“Using a phylogenetic microarray and selected qPCR assays, we analysed differences in the faecal microbiota of 57 subjects from five study groups”

Animal models of microbiome research

Dietary modulation of the microbiome affects autoinflammatory disease – John R. Lukens – Nature

“Here we show that the intestinal microbiota of diseased Pstpip2cmo mice was characterized by an outgrowth of Prevotella. “

Mammal microbiome

Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: Evidence from multidisciplinary research
Fuwen Wei – Molecular Biology and Evolution

“The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological and genetic adaptations and co-adaptation of gut microbiota.”

Plant microbiome

Multi-symbiotic systems: functional implications of the coexistence of grass–endophyte and legume–rhizobia symbioses – Pablo A. García Parisi – Oikos

“After five months, we quantified the number of nodules in Trifolium roots, shoot biomass of both plant species, and the contribution of atmospheric nitrogen fixation vs. soil nitrogen uptake to above ground nitrogen in each plant species. “

Microbes in the news

Young companies, big ideas – The 2014 edition of the CNN 10: Startups – CNN

“Her doubts were assuaged when supporters donated $350,000 to help launch her startup, uBiome. Now, two years later, uBiome is exploring an emerging field of human biology while giving users a glimpse into how their bodies work.”

No women, unfortunately! And they did not accept my application to be a judge either. MO BIO Laboratories, Inc. announces Microbiome Awards winners – PR NewsWire

“MO BIO Laboratories, Inc. is proud to announce the winners of the MO BIO Microbiome Awards, which provide young, extraordinary scientists with funding and recognition to carry out scientific work in the field of microbiome research.”

Super-bacteria are growing in space … and we’re the ones breeding them – Meera Senthilingam – CNN

“You might think of space as a germ-free environment, but microbes can be carried to space inside human gut flora as well as in food and water and once up there, can be expelled by humans in their breath.”

There’s a simple way to stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria – Melinda Mary Pettigrew – Washington Post

“The issue boils down to this: we use too many antibiotics. Studies show that up to half of all antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily.”

Across Indian zoos, rat pee spreading bacteria, killing big cats: Scientists – Priyangi Agarwal – The Times of India

“The leptospirosis bacteria, found in rodent urine, makes its way into blood samples of zoo animals and causes higher morbidity and mortality, scientists at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) in Bareilly have found. “

Brazil releases ‘good’ mosquitoes to fight dengue fever – BBC

“Brazilian researchers in Rio de Janeiro have released thousands of mosquitoes infected with bacteria that suppress dengue fever. The hope is they will multiply, breed and become the majority of mosquitoes, thus reducing cases of the disease.“

Science, Publishing, and Career

Young, Brilliant and Underfunded – Andy Harris – New York Times

“The bulk of that money goes to researchers who are in many cases esteemed in their fields — but also, in many cases, beyond the age when most scientists make their most important contributions to their fields.”

Why women leave tech: It’s the culture, not because ‘math is hard’ – Kieran Snyder – Fortune

“Stories from 716 women who left tech show that the industry’s culture is the primary culprit, not any issues related to science education.”

Satire: Tips For Working With A Lab Partner – FakeScience

Bik’s Picks

Is this the end of autumn as we know it? – Stephanie Pappas – BBC Earth

“The study of the basic triggers of autumnal leaf changes, never mind the impact of climate change on these, is still in its infancy in part because scientists have traditionally focused their attentions on the seasonal changes in March and April than those later in the year.”

The Incredible Rubber Glove – Olga Khazan – The Atlantic

“Basic protective gear was revolutionary for 19th-century medicine, and health workers trying to stop Ebola are recognizing its importance all over again.”

This Is Why Your Voice Sounds So Frickin’ Weird To You – Macrina Cooper-White – The Huffington Post

“Have you ever listened to a recording of your own voice and thought, “Whoa. Do I really sound like that?” Well, it’s time to face the music. You really do.”

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Human and cell phone microbiome, June 24

The PhoneBiome has finally been characterized. Effect of maltodextrin on gut microbiome, and obesity and risk for preterm birth.

Skin and phone microbiome

Mobile phones carry the personal microbiome of their owners – James F. Meadow – Peer J

“We found that about 22% of the bacterial taxa on participants’ fingers were also present on their own phones, as compared to 17% they shared on average with other people’s phones. “

Gut microbiome

The Metabolizable Energy of Dietary Resistant Maltodextrin Is Variable and Alters Fecal Microbiota Composition in Adult Men – David J. Baer – The Journal of Nutrition

“RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the gut. “

B cells as a critical node in the microbiota–host immune system network
Emma Slack – Immunological Reviews

“In this review, we address how B-cell responses to members of the intestinal microbiota form a robust network with mucus, epithelial integrity, follicular helper T cells, innate immunity, and gut-associated lymphoid tissues to maintain host–microbiota mutualism.”

Classification and quantification of bacteriophage taxa in human gut metagenomes – Alison S Waller – ISME Journal 

“Using taxon-specific marker genes, we identified and monitored 20 viral taxa in 252 human gut metagenomic samples, mostly at the level of genera. “

Cesarean delivery and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis – Yi Li – Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

“Results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that cesarean delivery was associated with the risk of CD but not of UC. The total rate of cesarean delivery of IBD patients was similar with that of control subjects.

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome – Lee KN – World Journal of Gastroenterology

“…the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology and management of IBS is not clear. This review provides the accumulating evidence on it.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth – Gary M. Shaw – Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

“Analyses of mothers without hypertension and diabetes, adjusted for age, education, height, and prenatal care initiation, showed obesity categories I–III to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at 20–23 and 24–27 weeks among those of parity 1 in each race/ethnic group.”

and

Obesity before pregnancy linked to earliest preterm births, Stanford/Packard study finds – Erin Digitale – Stanford Medicine News Center

“Women who are obese before they become pregnant face an increased risk of delivering their babies before 28 weeks of pregnancy, a new study of nearly 1 million California births has found.”

Maturation of the enteric mucosal innate immune system during the postnatal period – Marcus Fulde and Mathias W. Hornef – Immunological Reviews

“Here, we discuss both adaptive and developmental mechanisms of the mucosal innate immune system that prevent inappropriate stimulation and facilitate establishment of a stable homeostatic host–microbial interaction after birth.”

Early Infant Nutrition and Metabolic Programming: What Are the Potential Molecular Mechanisms? – Stephanie-May Ruchat – Current Nutrition Reports

“This review will present potential molecular mechanisms through which early postnatal nutrition may influence health and disease programming, focusing on research that used “-omics” approaches (i.e., epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics).”

Oral presentation: Serum beta defensin concentration in the first trimester is related to genotype, and is higher in women who develop PPROM and deliver before 34 weeks – CP James – Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed

“Serum hBD2 expression is higher in women who have PPROM and PTB. Women with PPROM and PTB have a distinct innate immune profile evident in their serum in the first trimester, which may provide the basis for a predictive test.”

Animal models of human microbiota and disease

Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice – Jingjing Wang – ISME Journal

“Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. “

Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission – Michelle G Rooks – ISME Journal

“Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. “

Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets – Dirkjan Schokker – PLOS ONE

” We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited.”

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