Human and cell phone microbiome, June 24

The PhoneBiome has finally been characterized. Effect of maltodextrin on gut microbiome, and obesity and risk for preterm birth.

Skin and phone microbiome

Mobile phones carry the personal microbiome of their owners – James F. Meadow – Peer J

“We found that about 22% of the bacterial taxa on participants’ fingers were also present on their own phones, as compared to 17% they shared on average with other people’s phones. “

Gut microbiome

The Metabolizable Energy of Dietary Resistant Maltodextrin Is Variable and Alters Fecal Microbiota Composition in Adult Men – David J. Baer – The Journal of Nutrition

“RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the gut. “

B cells as a critical node in the microbiota–host immune system network
Emma Slack – Immunological Reviews

“In this review, we address how B-cell responses to members of the intestinal microbiota form a robust network with mucus, epithelial integrity, follicular helper T cells, innate immunity, and gut-associated lymphoid tissues to maintain host–microbiota mutualism.”

Classification and quantification of bacteriophage taxa in human gut metagenomes – Alison S Waller – ISME Journal 

“Using taxon-specific marker genes, we identified and monitored 20 viral taxa in 252 human gut metagenomic samples, mostly at the level of genera. “

Cesarean delivery and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis – Yi Li – Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

“Results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that cesarean delivery was associated with the risk of CD but not of UC. The total rate of cesarean delivery of IBD patients was similar with that of control subjects.

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome – Lee KN – World Journal of Gastroenterology

“…the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology and management of IBS is not clear. This review provides the accumulating evidence on it.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth – Gary M. Shaw – Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

“Analyses of mothers without hypertension and diabetes, adjusted for age, education, height, and prenatal care initiation, showed obesity categories I–III to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at 20–23 and 24–27 weeks among those of parity 1 in each race/ethnic group.”

and

Obesity before pregnancy linked to earliest preterm births, Stanford/Packard study finds – Erin Digitale – Stanford Medicine News Center

“Women who are obese before they become pregnant face an increased risk of delivering their babies before 28 weeks of pregnancy, a new study of nearly 1 million California births has found.”

Maturation of the enteric mucosal innate immune system during the postnatal period – Marcus Fulde and Mathias W. Hornef – Immunological Reviews

“Here, we discuss both adaptive and developmental mechanisms of the mucosal innate immune system that prevent inappropriate stimulation and facilitate establishment of a stable homeostatic host–microbial interaction after birth.”

Early Infant Nutrition and Metabolic Programming: What Are the Potential Molecular Mechanisms? – Stephanie-May Ruchat – Current Nutrition Reports

“This review will present potential molecular mechanisms through which early postnatal nutrition may influence health and disease programming, focusing on research that used “-omics” approaches (i.e., epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics).”

Oral presentation: Serum beta defensin concentration in the first trimester is related to genotype, and is higher in women who develop PPROM and deliver before 34 weeks – CP James – Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed

“Serum hBD2 expression is higher in women who have PPROM and PTB. Women with PPROM and PTB have a distinct innate immune profile evident in their serum in the first trimester, which may provide the basis for a predictive test.”

Animal models of human microbiota and disease

Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice – Jingjing Wang – ISME Journal

“Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. “

Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission – Michelle G Rooks – ISME Journal

“Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. “

Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets – Dirkjan Schokker – PLOS ONE

” We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited.”

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