Microbiome digest, August 15, 2014

Today we got donkey, goat, and camel milk, deodorants, kitten microbiomes, and coffee as a new mouth rinse.

Pregnancy and birth

Gut microbiota in preterm infants with gross blood in stools: A prospective, controlled study – Mohamed Ben Said – Early Human Development

“Each case was paired with two controls who were hospitalized in the same unit and were matched for gestational age and birth weight. The diversity of the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene PCR and temporal temperature gel electrophoresis. “

Human oral microbiome

Antibacterial effect of coffee: calcium concentration in a culture containing teeth/biofilm exposed to Coffea Canephora aqueous extract – N. Meckelburg – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“This study revealed an inhibitory action of Coffea canephora against dental biofilm. This coffee species caused bacterial lysis and consequent release of calcium into the medium.”

Human gut microbiome

Review: Exploring gut microbes in Human health and disease: pushing the envelope
Jun Sun, Eugene B. Chang – Genes & Diseases

“In this review and commentary, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of the intestinal microbiome in the context of health and diseases, focusing on mechanistic concepts that underlie the complex relationships between host and microbes.”

Review: Emergence of fecal microbiota transplantation as an approach to repair disrupted microbial gut ecology – Alexander Khoruts, Alexa R. Weingarden – Immunology Letters

“Mechanistic understanding will be required in development of next generation microbiota therapeutics, which may include FMT or defined microbial consortia.”

Gut Bacteria May Play a Role in Autism – Melinda Wenner Moyer – Scientific American

“One open question is whether these microbial differences drive the development of the condition or are instead a consequence of it. “

Skin microbiome

Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community – Chris Callewaert — Archives of Dermatological Research

“The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics.”

Goat and Ass Milk microbiome

Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: Impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity – Elizabeth A. McInnis – Food Microbiology

“Milk from transgenic goats containing lysozyme had a similar microbiota over time.”

Fasscinating stuff: Cleopatra took daily baths in assmilk to keep her skin wrinklefree. Maybe lactic acid bacteria were her secret?  Biotyping of cultivable lactic acid bacteria isolated from donkey milk – D. Carminati – Letters in Applied Microbiology

“The large amounts of antimicrobial components and defence factors present in donkey’s milk provide protection from microbial infections and distinguish donkey’s milk from the milks of other mammals”

The Kitten Microbiome Project

“Keeping track of the cutest, fluffiest microbiome project around”

Insect microbiome

Microbial impacts on insect evolutionary diversification: From patterns to mechanisms
Fabrice Vavre, Natacha Kremer – Current Opinion in Insect Science

“Symbiosis can favor rapid shifts in host phenotypic traits, particularly through the contribution of symbionts to the host’s physiology.”

How resident microbes modulate ecologically-important traits of insects
Kerry M. Oliver, Adam J. Martinez – Current Opinion in Insect Science

“In addition to their better-known roles in nutrient provisioning and degrading plant polymers, there is emerging evidence that microorganisms also aid herbivores in countering plant defenses. “

Metabolomics

Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: natural product-likeness for candidate ranking – Kalai Vanii Jayaseelan and Christoph Steinbeck – BMC Bioinformatics

“In this study, we investigated whether additional existing knowledge, such as the fact that the unknown compound is a natural product, can be used to improve the ranking of the correct structure in the result list after the structure elucidation process.”

Phages and viruses

Bacteriophage as effective decolonising agent for elimination of MRSA from anterior nares of BALB/c mice – Sanjay Chhibber – BMC Microbiology

“Phage MR-10, given along with mupirocin showed an additive effect and the combination was able to effectively eradicate the colonising MRSA population from the nares of mice by day 5.”

Crystal structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex bound to a ssDNA target – Sabin Mulepati, Annie Héroux, Scott Bailey – Science

“The structure reveals that the CRISPR RNA and target strands do not form a double helix but instead adopt an underwound ribbon-like structure. “

Bik’s Picks – weekend edition

15 Real-Life Scientists Share Their Favorite Science Fiction Books, Movies – Jacqueline Howard – Huffington Post

“There’s a big difference between science and science fiction, but there’s abundant evidence to suggest that sci-fi books and movies can spark a lifelong interest in science.”

After donkey and goat milk, this one was only appropriate: A Nice Tall Glass of Camel’s Milk – Olga Khazan – The Atlantic

“An oasis in the dromedary-dairy desert?”

Male Mathematicians Agree That Fields Medal Gender Balance Is Now OK – The Allium

“Now that a woman has won the fields medal, there is true and genuine equality and there is no need to worry any more about it.”

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