General microbiome digest, July 1

Diet and gut microbiome (again), Campylobacter in chicken is not a commensal, microbiomes of fish, insects, corals, plant, and hospitals, and women in science.

Human gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.07PM, Jul 01Correlation network analysis reveals relationships between diet-induced changes in human gut microbiota and metabolic health – T Kelder – Nutrition & Diabetes

“We assessed fecal microbiota composition and host response patterns of metabolic and inflammatory markers in 10 apparently healthy men subjected to a high-fat high-caloric diet (HFHC, 1300 kcal/day extra) for 4 weeks. “

Pregnancy and birth

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.08PM, Jul 01 1Gestational Age and Age at Sampling Influence Metabolic Profiles in Premature Infants
Reese H. Clark – Pediatrics

“Metabolic profiles (15 amino acids and 35 acylcarnitines) were obtained by using standard newborn techniques on infants born between 23 and 31 completed weeks of gestation.”

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.08PM, Jul 01Non-invasive analysis of intestinal development in preterm and term infants using RNA-Sequencing – Jason M. Knight – Nature Scientific Reports

“we have developed a novel, noninvasive, molecular approach that utilizes next generation RNA sequencing on stool samples containing intact epithelial cells for the purpose of quantifying intestinal gene expression.”

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.09PM, Jul 01Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study – Sinéad M. O’Neill – PLOS Medicine

“This study found that cesarean section is associated with a small increased rate of subsequent stillbirth and ectopic pregnancy.”

Bird microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.10PM, Jul 01Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare – Suzanne Humphrey – mBio

“Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. “

Fish microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.10PM, Jul 01 1Quorum quenching bacteria Bacillus sp. QSI-1 protect zebrafish (Danio rerio) from Aeromonas hydrophila infection – Weihua Chu – Nature Scientific Reports

“In this study, the effect of Bacillus sp. QSI-1 as an efficient quorum quencher on virulence factors production and biofilm formation of fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. ”

Insect microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.11PM, Jul 01Evolutionary origin of insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism – Naruo Nikoh – PNAS

“In the bedbug’s Wolbachia genome, we identified a gene cluster encoding the complete synthetic pathway for biotin (vitamin B7), which is not present in other Wolbachia genomes and is presumably acquired via lateral transfer from a coinfecting endosymbiont. “

Corals and sponges microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.12PM, Jul 01Local genomic adaptation of coral reef-associated microbiomes to gradients of natural variability and anthropogenic stressors – Linda W. Kelly – PNAS

“The present study investigated the community structure and metabolic potential of microbes inhabiting coral reefs located across an extensive area in the central Pacific. “

Plant microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.13PM, Jul 01The role of sulfur and phosphorus mobilizing bacteria in biochar induced growth promotion of Lolium perenne – A Fox – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“16S rRNA gene based rhizobacteria community analysis revealed a significant biochar treatment effect. Abundance of nematodes feeding on bacteria was also significantly increased in the biochar treatments.”

Functional diversification within bacterial lineages promotes wide functional overlapping between taxonomic groups in a Mediterranean soil forest – J Curiel Yuste – FEMS Microbiology Ecology

“We investigated the relationship between taxonomy and functioning of soil bacterial communities in soils from a Mediterranean Holm-oak forest using a high throughput DNA pyrosequencing technique. “

Soil, sewage and sludge microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.15PM, Jul 01Response of soil-associated microbial communities to intrusion of coal mine-derived acid mine drainage – Justin S Brantner and John M Senko – Environmental Science & Technology

” Evaluation of pyrosequencing-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from incubations revealed the development of microbial community characteristics that were similar to those of the mature iron mound sediment. “

Transformation Products and Human Metabolites of Triclocarban and Triclosan in Sewage Sludge Across the United States – Benny F. G. Pycke – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge.”

Built Environment Microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.14PM, Jul 01Rethinking Sterile: The Hospital Microbiome – Carrie Arnold – Environ Health Perspect

“Gilbert, an environmental microbiologist at Argonne National Laboratory, and his platoon of graduate students, postdocs, and research assistants descended on the hospital several times each day, even before it opened to the public. Armed with cotton swabs, they focused their efforts on the floors devoted to surgery and oncology. “

Bioinformatics

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.15PM, Jul 01 1A cloud-compatible bioinformatics pipeline for ultrarapid pathogen identification from next-generation sequencing of clinical samples – Samia N. Naccache – Genome Research

“Here we describe SURPI (“sequence-based ultrarapid pathogen identification”), a computational pipeline for pathogen identification from complex metagenomic NGS data generated from clinical samples, and demonstrate use of the pipeline in the analysis of 237 clinical samples comprising more than 1.1 billion sequences. “

Metagenomics

Metagenomic scaffolds enable combinatorial lignin transformation
Cameron R. Strachan – PNAS

“In this study, we devised a previously unidentified biosensor responsive to lignin transformation products. We used this biosensor in a functional screen to recover metagenomic scaffolds sourced from coal bed bacterial communities. “

Arsenic metabolism

Sealing rice field boundaries in Bangladesh: a pilot study demonstrates reductions in water use, arsenic loading to field soils, and methane emissions from irrigation water – Rebecca B Neumann – Environmental Science & Technology

“Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated and methane-rich groundwater loads arsenic into field soils and releases methane into the atmosphere. We tested the water-savings potential of sealing field bunds (raised boundaries around field edges) as a way to mitigate these negative outcomes.”

Localised Flux-Maxima of Arsenic, Lead and Iron around Root Apices in Flooded Lowland Rice – Paul Nicholas Williams – Environmental Science & Technology

“Here we use new diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT)/planar optode sandwich sensors deployed in situ on rice roots to demonstrate a new geochemical niche of greatly enhanced As, Pb and Fe(II) mobilization into solution immediately adjacent to the root tips characterized by O2 enrichment and low pH. “

Dengue

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.16PM, Jul 01Baicalin, a metabolite of baicalein with antiviral activity against dengue virus – Ehsan Moghaddam – Nature Scientific Reports

“Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication.”

Antibiotic resistance

Review: The expression of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-producing bacteria – Stefanie Mak – Molecular Microbiology

“Antibiotic-producing bacteria encode antibiotic resistance genes that protect them from the biologically active molecules that they produce. The expression of these genes needs to occur in a timely manner: either in advance of or concomitantly with biosynthesis. It appears that there have been at least two general solutions to this problem. “

General microbiology

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.20PM, Jul 01Bacterial sugar utilization gives rise to distinct single-cell behaviors – Taliman Afroz – Molecular Microbiology

“Here, we performed single-cell analyses to probe the behavior of representative pathways in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. “

Identification of essential Alphaproteobacterial genes reveals operational variability in conserved developmental and cell cycle systems – Patrick D. Curtis and Yves V. Brun – Molecular Microbiology

“These results show that while essential cell functions are conserved across varying genetic distance, much of a given organism’s essential gene pool is specific to that organism.”

Science and career

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.22PM, Jul 01Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women – Jason M. Sheltzer and Joan C. Smith – PNAS

“To explore the current causes of women’s underrepresentation in biology, we collected publicly accessible data from university directories and faculty websites about the composition of biology laboratories at leading academic institutions in the United States. “

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.01PM, Jul 01Americans Think We Have the World’s Best Colleges. We Don’t. – Kevin Carey – New York Times

We see K-12 schools and colleges differently because we’re looking at two different yardsticks: the academic performance of the whole population of students in one case, the research performance of a small number of institutions in the other.”

Dr. Bik’s picks

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.23PM, Jul 01Herbivore diet breadth mediates the cascading effects of carnivores in food webs – Michael S. Singer – PNAS

“Accounting for phylogenetic nonindependence of herbivores and plants, we show for the first time (to our knowledge) that dietary specialization of herbivore species is associated with reduced bird predation across an herbivore phylogeny, and that dietary specialization of herbivores increases the antipredator effects of camouflage and aposematism.”

Screen shot 2014-07-01 at 06.23PM, Jul 01 1Evolution of the ribosome at atomic resolution – Anton S. Petrov – PNAS

“Comparing eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes allows us to identify 3D insertion fingerprints of the expansion segments. Similar fingerprints allow us to analyze the common core and detect ancestral expansion segments within it. “

Plastic mapPlastic debris in the open ocean – Andrés Cózar – PNAS

“In this work, we synthetize data collected across the world to provide a global map and a first-order approximation of the magnitude of the plastic pollution in surface waters of the open ocean.”

[hr]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s