February 16, 2022

Happy Wednesday! Today’s digest includes two gut-brain axis papers from Sarkis Mazmanian’s lab at CalTech. The first article, published in Nature, found that 4-ethylphenol (4EPS) produced by gut microbes from dietary tyrosine was capable of entering the brain and changing gene expression, brain cell interactions, and brain functions. In the second study, published in Nature Medicine, oral administration of the adsorbent AB-2004–which can bind and sequester phenolic compounds–led to reduced levels of gut 4EPS and decreased anxiety in human adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

I have also included an article published by my thesis lab in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology looking at the impact of seasons on the respiratory microbiome and asthma exacerbations in children.

Finally, there is an interesting paper by Baranova et al. in which the authors identify a bacterial species ubiquitous across multiple wild animals that appears to have novel functions for pathogen control or microbiome remodeling. Happy reading!

General Microbiome
Scale-dependent tipping points of bacterial colonization resistance. – Karita, Y. et al., PNAS.

Microbial protection favors parasite tolerance and alters host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics. – Rafaluk-Mohr, C. et al., Current Biology.

Human Respiratory Microbiome
Seasonal Airway Microbiome and Transcriptome Interactions Promote Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. – McCauley, K.E. et al., The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

Human Skin Microbiome
Secreted Toxins From Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Keratinocyte Skin Cancers Mediate Pro-tumorigenic Inflammatory Responses in the Skin. – Krueger, A. et al., Frontiers in Microbiology.

Aged related human skin microbiome and mycobiome in Korean women. – Kim, H-J. et al., Scientific Reports.

Human Vaginal Microbiome
Extracellular Vesicles Generated by Gram-Positive Bacteria Protect Human Tissues Ex Vivo From HIV-1 Infection. – Costantini, P.E. et al., Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

Gut-Brain Axis
A gut-derived metabolite alters brain activity and anxiety behavior in mice. – Needham, B.D. et al., Nature.

Safety and target engagement of an oral small-molecule sequestrant in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: an open-label phase 1b/2a trial. – Campbell, A.S., Needham, B.D., Meyers, C.R. et al., Nature Medicine.

Animal Experiments
Tryptophan-derived microbial metabolites activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in tumor-associated macrophages to suppress anti-tumor immunity. – Hezaveh, K. et al., Immunity.

Stochastic microbiome assembly depends on context. – Jones, E.W. et al., PNAS.

IBD-Associated Atg16L1T300A Polymorphism Regulates Commensal Microbiota of the Intestine. – Liu, H. et al., Frontiers in Immunology.

A homeostatic interferon-lambda response to bacterial microbiota stimulates preemptive antiviral defense within discrete pockets of intestinal epithelium. – Van Winkle, J.A. et al. eLife.

Enteric nervous system modulation of luminal pH modifies the microbial environment to promote intestinal health. – Hamilton, M.K. et al., PLoS Pathogens.

Animal Microbiome
Characterization of the Gut Microbiome and Resistomes of Wild and Zoo-Captive Macaques. – Jia, T. et al., Frontiers in Veterinary Science.

Deep Functional Profiling of Wild Animal Microbiomes Reveals Probiotic Bacillus pumilus Strains with a Common Biosynthetic Fingerprint. – Baranova, M.N. et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Plant, Root, and Soil Microbiome
Plant immunity suppression via PHR1-RALF-FERONIA shapes the root microbiome to alleviate phosphate starvation. – Tang, J. et al., The EMBO Journal.

Extracts from Environmental Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Effectively Control Fungal Plant Diseases. – Librizzi, V. et al., Plants.

Mega-fire in Redwood Tanoak Forest Reduces Bacterial and Fungal Richness and Selects for Pyrophilous Taxa that are Phylogenetically Conserved. – Enright, D.J. et al., Molecular Ecology.

Water and Extremophile Microbiome
Analysis of antibiotic resistance genes reveals its important role in influencing the community structure of ocean microbiome. – Yang, P. et al., The Science of the Total Environment.

Seaweeds influence oyster microbiota and disease susceptibility. – Dugeny, E. et al., The Journal of Animal Ecology.

Air Microbiome
Vertical stratification of the air microbiome in the lower troposphere. – Drautz-Moses, D.I. et al., PNAS.

Evaluating supervised and unsupervised background noise correction in human gut microbiome data. – Briscoe, L. et al., PLoS Computational Biology.

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