Human microbiome, June 23

Lactobacillus feeding on human milk, Mycoplasma in preterm birth, and Clostridium difficile infection and gut microbiota.

Pregnancy and birth

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.51.26 PMA unique gene cluster for the utilization of the mucosal and human milk-associated glycans galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose in Lactobacillus casei – Gonzalo N. Bidart – Molecular Microbiology

“The data represent the first characterization of novel metabolic pathways for human milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate structures in Firmicutes”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.01.13 PMReport from AANP 2014, Nashville, Tennessee: Screening for Bacteria May Help Pregnancy Outcomes – Ed Susman, MedpageToday

“In a single-center study, about 70% of symptomatic women who were screened for vaginal infections with either Mycoplasma Genitalium or Mycoplasma Hominis experienced preterm birth compared with 30% of the asymptomatic women who still underwent screening for the infections at a prenatal visit, reported Allison Phillips, DNP, of Robert Morris University in Pittsburgh, and colleagues.”

Oral microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.52.34 PMNew analysis reveals previously ‘hidden diversity’ of mouth bacteria – MBL

“Using a novel computational method called oligotyping, developed by MBL Assistant Research Scientist A. Murat Eren, scientists analyzed gene sequence data from nine sites in the oral cavity. ” “The study will be published in PNAS Online Early Edition the week of June 23-27, 2014”, but is not yet on PNAS website

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.53.35 PMEffects of pH and Lactate on Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Oral Veillonella spp. – Jumpei Washio – Applied and Environmental Microbiology

“Thus, in the present study, the H2S-producing activity of growing cells, resting cells, and cell extracts of oral Veillonella species and the effects of oral environmental factors, including pH and lactate, were investigated.”

Gut microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.54.40 PMStructural and functional changes in the gut microbiota associated to Clostridium difficile infection – Ana E. Pérez-Cobas – Frontiers in Microbiology

“Here, we analyze the composition and functional differences in the gut microbiota of C. difficile infected (CDI) versus non-infected patients, both patient groups having been treated with AB therapy. To do so we used 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic 454-based pyrosequencing approaches. “

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.58.40 PMThe HLA-DQ2 genotype selects for early intestinal microbiota composition in infants at high risk of developing coeliac disease – M Olivares – Gut

“Infants with a high genetic risk had significantly higher proportions of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower proportions of Actinobacteria compared with low-risk infants.”

(Both human and animal)
Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.57.57 PMA single genus in the gut microbiome reflects host preference and specificity – A Murat Eren – The ISME Journal

“In our dataset of 57 M sequence reads of the V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in samples collected from seven host species, we identified 200 high-resolution taxonomic units within Blautia using oligotyping.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.57.04 PMMicrobiomes are true to type – Andrew H. Moeller and Howard Ochman – PNAS

“Enter Wang et al. (3), who provide both retrospective and experimental evidence that the maintenance of enterotypes in host populations is driven by dietary variation.”

General human microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 10.56.07 PMMicrobiota and neurodevelopmental windows: implications for brain disorders
– Yuliya E Borre – Trends in Molecular Medicine

“This review compares the parallel early development of the intestinal microbiota and the nervous system.”

Animal models of human microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-23 at 11.00.16 PMThe murine appendiceal microbiome is altered in spontaneous colitis and its pathological progression – Sultan Alkadhi – Gut Pathogens

“The appendiceal dysbiosis observed in our Winnie mice is commensurate with, and adds to extant literature data. The presence of Helicobacteraceae (Proteobacteria) only in colitic Winnie mice (but not control mice) is consistent with reports of increased Helicobacter in IBD patients. “

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