Human microbiome, August 26, 2014

Gut microbiome structure in the first years of life, lung microbiome in pneumonia and tuberculosis, why iron supplements might not always be a good thing, and the Microbiome Diet Book.

Pregnancy and birth

The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease – Marie-Claire Arrieta – Frontiers in Immunology

“This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition.”

Oral microbiome

Review: The oral microbiome diversity and its relation to human diseases – Jinzhi He – Folia Microbiologica

“In this review, we focus on the recent progress in this field, including the oral microbiome composition and its association with human diseases.”

Respiratory microbiome

Single-Molecule Long Read 16S Sequencing to Characterize the Lung Microbiome from Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Suspected Pneumonia – Ian Toma – Journal of Clinical Microbiology

“The present study used NGS of essentially full-length PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA from the bronchial aspirates of intubated patients with suspected pneumonia.”

Respiratory tract clinical sample selection for microbiota analysis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis – Luz Elena Botero – Microbiome Journal

“Most V1-V2 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria, with differences in relative abundances and in specific taxa associated with each sample type. “

Gut microbiome

* Iron fortification adversely affects the gut microbiome, increases pathogen abundance and induces intestinal inflammation in Kenyan infants – Tanja Jaeggi – Gut

“Using pyrosequencing, +FeMNPs increased enterobacteria, particularly Escherichia/Shigella (p=0.048), the enterobacteria/bifidobacteria ratio (p=0.020), and Clostridium (p=0.030).”

Animal models of microbiome research

Amelioration of DSS-induced murine colitis by VSL#3 supplementation is primarily associated with changes in ileal microbiota composition – Jordan S. Mar – Gut Microbes

“Microbiota profiling revealed distinct bacterial community compositions in the ileum, cecum and colon of control untreated animals”

Commensal Bacteria Regulate Thymic Aire Expression – Akihito Nakajima – PLOS ONE

“autoimmune regulator (Aire) expression in thymic epithelial cells (TECs), main components of the thymic microenvironment, was decreased in comparison to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice and Nod1 wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. “

Microbiome in the News

Overselling the Microbiome Award: The Microbiome Diet Book – Jonathan Eisen – The Tree of Life

“Sound too good to be true? Well, that is because it is.”