Human microbiomes, June 6

Bacteria causing IBD (in an animal model), gut microbiota from Spanish infants, and radiation therapy damaging teeth.

Gut microbiome

GutAn intestinal arsonist: pathobiont ignites IBD and flees the scene – Stefan Jellbauer and Manuela Raffatellu – Gut

“Evidence for Proteobacteria as a potential trigger of IBD has been deduced by cohort studies showing that inflammatory diarrhoea caused by either Salmonella species or Campylobacter species predisposes genetically susceptible individuals to developing IBD”

AIEC pathobiont instigates chronic colitis in susceptible hosts by altering microbiota composition – Benoit Chassaing – Gut

“Transient AIEC colonisation, in WT mice, did not alter inflammatory markers, bacterial loads, microbiota composition, nor its pro-inflammatory potential. By contrast, transient AIEC colonisation of T5KO mice drove chronic inflammation which correlated with microbiota components having higher levels of bioactive LPS and flagellin.”

BBAReview: Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease -M.C. Cénit – Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease

“In this review we describe the different approaches used to characterize the human microbiome, review current knowledge about the gut microbiome, and discuss the role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-07 at 1.49.49 AMEx-Merck exec’s new microbiome startup has a pill that works like a fecal transplant against C. diff – Ransdell Pierson – MedCityNews

“The Seres oral capsule, called SER 109, in early clinical trials quickly eliminated symptoms in more than 90 percent of patients, Pomerantz said in a telephone interview.”

Malnutrition ‘damages gut bacteria’ – BBC Health News

“A team studied the gut health of malnourished children in Bangladesh. Writing in the journal Nature they said the bacterial make-up was not fully restored to normal after food supplements were given.”

Oral microbiome

ToothRadiation therapy alters microhardness and microstructure of enamel and dentin of permanent human teeth – Ligia Maria Napolitano Gonçalves – Journal of Dentistry

“The effects of gamma irradiation on dental substrate might contribute to increased risk of radiation tooth decay associated with salivary changes, microbiota shift and high soft and carbohydrate-rich food intake.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Screen Shot 2014-06-07 at 1.52.06 AMMicrobial Succession in the Gut: Directional Trends of Taxonomic and Functional Change in a Birth Cohort of Spanish Infants – Yvonne Vallès – PLOS Genetics

“Here, we analyze the patterns of taxonomic and functional change in the gut microbiota during the first year of life for a birth cohort of 13 infants. We detect that individual instances of gut colonization vary in the temporal dynamics of microbiota richness, diversity, and composition at both functional and taxonomic levels. “

Probiotics

Screen Shot 2014-06-07 at 1.53.11 AMProbiotics: Separating the Hype From the Healthy – Nikki Fotheringham – HuffingtonPost

“That’s right baby; we’re all just sacks of seething bacteria! Now before you freak out, remember that the word “bacteria” has been given negative connotations by the Purell-fueled paranoia of the germ police. “

 

Metabolomics

Journal of functional foodsStructural features and feruloylation modulate the fermentability and evolution of antioxidant properties of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides during in vitro fermentation by human gut derived microbiota – Jeroen Snelders – Journal of Functional Foods

“Two AXOS samples with a low average degree of arabinose substitution, specifically differing in average degree of polymerization, and three AXOS samples, specifically differing in ferulic acid (FA) content and appearance (free or bound), were incubated with cultured human colon microbiota.”

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