Human microbiome digest, September 29, 2014

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Smoking and the subgingival ecosystem, inflammatory bowel diseases, iron in the gut, and metabolism of acetaminophen.

Pregnancy and birth

External influence of early childhood establishment of gut microbiota and subsequent health implications – Peris M. Munyaka – Frontiers in Pediatrics

“Early exposures impacting the intestinal microbiota are associated with the development of childhood diseases that may persist to adulthood”

Human oral microbiome

* Smoking decreases structural and functional resilience in the subgingival ecosystem – Vinayak Joshi – Journal of Clinical Periodontology

“16S cloning and sequencing was used for bacterial identification and multiplexed bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators.”

Human gut microbiome

Functional Impacts of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Jennifer Li – Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

“We highlight functional roles of specific bacterial groups in the development and management of IBD. “

Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective – Guus A.M. Kortman – FEMS Microbiology Reviews

“This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health.”

Animal models of microbiome research

The role of intestinal microbiota in murine models of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity – Lucia A Possamai – Liver International

“A urinary metabolic profile was obtained using 1H-NMR. Baseline hepatic glutathione content and CYP2E1 expression were quantified.”

Dietary Xylo-oligosaccharide stimulates intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli but has limited effect on intestinal integrity in rats – Ellen Gerd Christensen – BMC Research Notes

“Changes in faecal and caecal bacterial composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR for selected bacterial groups revealed that the overall bacterial composition did not differ markedly“

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