Human microbiome, July 15

Not-always-rare taxa in a wide range of ecosystems, microbiome in early life, focus on Lactobacillus and Bacteroides and microbiota and inflammation.

General microbiome

Science Webinar: The promise of the microbiome: Function and dysfunction in humans and beyond – David A. Relman, Jack A. Gilbert, Rob Knight

“Microbiomes–the distinct microbial populations that colonize an array of bodily and environmental niches–are rapidly gaining prominence in numerous fields of research. “

Gut microbiome

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.18PM, Jul 15Conditionally Rare Taxa Disproportionately Contribute to Temporal Changes in Microbial Diversity – Ashley Shade – mBio

“Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure.”

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.20PM, Jul 15Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut – Hélène Licandro-Seraut – PNAS

“By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. “

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.21PM, Jul 15Tuning transcription of nutrient utilization genes to catabolic rate promotes growth in a gut bacterium – Varsha Raghavan – Molecular Microbiology

“We report that the regulator controlling utilization of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the mammalian gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is activated by an intermediate in CS breakdown rather than CS itself.”

Pregnancy and Birth

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.38PM, Jul 15 1Review: The Microbiome in Early Life: Self-Completion and Microbiota Protection as Health Priorities – Rodney R. Dietert – Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology

“This minireview considers the benefits of refocusing attention away from treating the patient as a mammalian human to managing the complete patient: a majority microbial superorganism. “

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.38PM, Jul 15Review: Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation – Charlene W. J. Africa – Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health

“This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. “

Oral microbiome

Review: Acquisition and maturation of oral microbiome throughout childhood: An update – Benedita Sampaio-Maia – Dental Research Journal

“This revision presents an overview of this renewed knowledge on oral microbial community acquisition in the newborn and on the evolution of this microbiome to adulthood. “


Animal models of human microbiome and disease

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.17PM, Jul 15Commensal microbes drive intestinal inflammation by IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells through ICOSL and OX40L costimulation in the absence of B7-1 and B7-2 – Lijun Xin – PNAS

“Here we show that B7 deprivation in mice overrides the necessity for Tregs in averting systemic autoimmunity and inflammation in extraintestinal tissues, whereas peripherally induced Tregs retained in the absence of B7 selectively mitigate intestinal inflammation caused by Th17 effector CD4+ T cells. “