General microbiology and science, July 15

Dengue virus replication, poliovirus transmission, marine viral communities, primer choice, and CRISPRs systems and antibiotic resistance.

Dengue virus

Letter: Are viral small RNA regulating Dengue virus replication beyond serotype 2? – Esteban Finol – PNAS

Letter: Reply to Finol: Viral small RNA from Dengue virus and its egulatory role in different serotypes – Mazhar Hussain and Sassan Asgari – PNAS

Poliovirus

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.00PM, Jul 15The role of older children and adults in wild poliovirus transmission – Isobel M. Blake – PNAS

“We fit a mathematical model of poliovirus transmission to time series data from two large outbreaks that affected adults (Tajikistan 2010, Republic of Congo 2010) using maximum-likelihood estimation based on iterated particle-filtering methods. “

Phages and viruses

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.01PM, Jul 15Modeling ecological drivers in marine viral communities using comparative metagenomics and network analyses – Bonnie L. Hurwitz – PNAS

“Here we combine advances in bioinformatics (shared k-mer analyses) and social networking (regression modeling) to develop an annotation- and assembly-free visualization and analytical strategy for comparative metagenomics that uses all the data in a unified statistical framework. “

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.02PM, Jul 15Contrasted coevolutionary dynamics between a bacterial pathogen and its bacteriophages – Alex Betts – PNAS

“We used experimental evolution between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a panel of its lytic phages and found the full known range of coevolutionary dynamics.”

CRISPRs and antibiotic resistance

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.03PM, Jul 15A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion – Timothy R. Sampson – PNAS

“We demonstrate that components of a clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) system, a prokaryotic defense against viruses and foreign nucleic acid, act to regulate the permeability of the bacterial envelope, ultimately providing these cells with the capability to resist membrane damage caused by antibiotics. “

Extraction and amplification techniques

The Influence of DNA Extraction Procedure and Primer Set on the Bacterial Community Analysis by Pyrosequencing of Barcoded 16S rRNA Gene Amplicons – Ingo C. Starke – Molecular Biology International

“In this study, the effect of different DNA extraction procedures and primer sets on pyrosequencing results regarding the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum of piglets was investigated. “

Metagenomics general

Interpreting 16S metagenomic data without clustering to achieve sub-OTU resolution – Mikhail Tikhonov – ISME Journal

“We present a clustering-free approach to multi-sample Illumina data sets that can identify independent bacterial subpopulations regardless of the similarity of their 16S tag sequences. “

 

General Microbiology

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.04PM, Jul 15Recovery of a Medieval Brucella melitensis Genome Using Shotgun Metagenomics – Gemma L. Kay – mBio

“We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome”

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.05PM, Jul 15Review: The Ins and Outs of Bacterial Iron Metabolism – Elaine R. Frawley and Ferric C. Fang – Molecular Microbiology

“The recent discovery of putative iron efflux transporters in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is discussed in the context of cellular iron homeostasis.”

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.05PM, Jul 15 1Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria – Tatiana Dimitriu – PNAS

“Our experiments and models converge to show that when both cheating and cooperative genes are transferred, cooperators win against cheaters because transfer increases assortment among alleles, favoring cooperation.”

Challenges and Opportunities of Integrative Taxonomy for Research and Society – Taxonomic Research in the Era of OMICS Technologies (PDF)  (Herausforderungen und Chancen der integrativen Taxonomie für Forschung und Gesellschaft) – Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina e.V.

Microbiomes and metagenomes in need of professional classification – Rudolf Amann
The intestinal microbiome and human health: a new challenge for taxonomy of metagenomic data – Bärbel Stecher
Characterizing species boundaries and species histories in closely related fungi using comparative population genomic approaches – Eva H. Stukenbrock

Coming of ageThe coming of age of microbial ecology – Ana E. Escalante and Silvia Pajares – Chapter in Open Access book: Frontiers in Ecology, Evolution and Complexity

“Despite major challenges, new technological advances in genomic sciences have prompted microbial ecology into a revolution in data generation that has allowed us to move beyond studies of single isolates to the study of entire microbial communities without reliance on culture-dependent methods.”

Review: The Dynamic Interactions between Salmonella and the Microbiota, within the Challenging Niche of the Gastrointestinal Tract – C. M. Anjam Khan – International Scholarly Research Notices

“This gastrointestinal pathogen not only faces the hostile defenses of the host’s immune system, but also faces fierce competition from the large and diverse community of microbiota for space and nutrients.”

 

Science and publishing

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 05.59PM, Jul 15Is Social Media Saving Science? – Michael White – Pacific Standard

“Why do editors and expert reviewers, whose primary job is to vet manuscripts, miss major flaws that are so obvious to readers after the papers are published?”

Dr. Bik’s Picks

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.07PM, Jul 15Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome – Sarah K. Davies – PNAS

“Clear daily rhythms were observed in most metabolites, with 24 h wakefulness mainly reducing the amplitude of these rhythms.”

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.06PM, Jul 15Comparison of five different RNA sources to examine the lactating bovine mammary gland transcriptome using RNA-Sequencing – Angela Cánovas – Nature Scientific Reports

“Our results provide a comparison between different sampling methods (invasive and non-invasive) to define the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue and milk cells.’

Screen shot 2014-07-15 at 06.07PM, Jul 15 1Superior time perception for lower musical pitch explains why bass-ranged instruments lay down musical rhythms – Michael J. Hove – PNAS

“Here, we show that, when two streams of tones are presented simultaneously, the brain better detects timing deviations in the lower-pitched than in the higher-pitched stream and that tapping synchronization to the tones is more influenced by the lower-pitched stream. “

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