Human microbiomes, June 5

Today we have some commentaries on recent papers about microbiotas in malnutrition or on placentas, and new papers about oral bacteria in the bloodstream, helminths, and coincidental killers.

Oral microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 7.59.36 PMDissemination of Periodontal Pathogens in the Bloodstream after Periodontal Procedures: A Systematic Review – Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana – PLOS ONE

“MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases were searched in duplicate through August, 2013 without language restriction. Observational studies were included if blood samples were collected before, during or after periodontal procedures of patients with periodontitis”

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 7.56.12 PMThe Emerging Landscape of Salivary Diagnostics – Yong Zhang- OHDM – Omics Online

“Here we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics that have been accomplished using salivaomics, the mechanisms of saliva diagnostics, as well as the translational and clinical application of saliva biomarkers”

Gut microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 7.57.14 PMInfection and Co-infection with Helminths and Plasmodium among School Children in Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey – Richard B. Yapi – PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

“We carried out the first national survey on parasitic worm and Plasmodium infection among children in 92 schools all over Côte d’Ivoire. Questionnaires were administered to determine the children’s socioeconomic status and infection-related risk factors. We found an overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection of 63.3%.”

ColonSome Antibiotics May Slightly Increase Colon Cancer Risk – Bahar Gholipour – LiveScience

“The researchers compared the amount of antibiotics the patients had taken at least six months before being diagnosed with cancer, to the amount of antibiotics taken by a group of about 86,000 healthy people.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 10.07.58 AMWhy Can’t Once-Malnourished Children “Catch Up”? Answer May Lie in Gut – Karen Weintraub – National Geographic

“There’s something lacking in our current approach to treatment,” said Gordon, who suspects the children may need to eat therapeutic foods for longer and/or get supplements of probiotics, or beneficial microorganisms, to catch up. “We need to think of food as interacting with this microbial organ.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.03.26 PMSevere hunger can have lasting effects for gut health, study finds – MedicalXPress

“Nutrition therapy has saved the lives of millions of malnourished infants, but may not restore an imbalance in gut bacteria that is key to long-term health and vitality, researchers said Wednesday.”

Pregnancy and birth

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.05.15 PMGearing up for a closer look at the human placenta – Jocelyn Kaiser – Science

“A placenta sustained you and every person ever born for 9 months, serving as your lungs and kidneys and pumping out hormones while you developed in the womb. Problems with this disk-shaped mass of tissue can contribute to everything from preterm births to diseases of middle age. Yet when a baby is born, hospitals usually throw the placenta away.”

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 9.57.32 AMMicrobirth: Why ‘Seeding Baby’s Microbiome’ Needs to Be on Every Birth Plan – Toni Harman – HuffingtonPost

“The latest scientific research is now starting to indicate that if the baby is not properly seeded with the mother’s own bacteria at birth, then the baby’s microbiome, in the words of Rodney R Dietert, Professor of Immunotoxicology at Cornell University, is left “incomplete”.”

General human microbiome

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.07.51 PMCoincidental killers – We assume that microbes evolved to attack humans when actually we are just civilian casualties in a much older war – Ed Yong – Aeon Magazine

“And some supposedly pathogenic bacteria were often common parts of the environment. ‘These organisms become accidental pathogens,’ says the microbiologist Arturo Casadevall from Yeshiva University in New York. ‘They’ll still be there even if you remove all the animals from the planet. And yet, evolution selected for just the right combination of traits to cause disease in humans.’”

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.12.08 PMSilicon Valley’s Top Ten Tech Trends – Jacqueline Vanacek – Forbes
Trend #7: Data-driven healthcare (from your gut).

The combination of personal health and fitness data, genomics, and even microbiomics will drive healthcare choices from real outcomes and individual probabilities. And since the bacteria in our digestive tracks has greater influence on our health than previously known, we really are what we eat!

Microbiome and Bioinformatics

Screen Shot 2014-06-05 at 8.11.20 PMBOTUX: Bayesian–like operational taxonomic unit examiner – Vishal N. Koparde – International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design

“Bayesian–like operational taxonomic unit examiner (BOTUX) is a new tool for the classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that addresses the problem of overestimation caused by errors introduced during PCR amplification and DNA sequencing steps”

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