Human microbiome, July 28

Oral microbes balancing their budgets, bacteria see blue, why Obama likes to fist bump, Gardnerella, and oxygen gradients in the gut.

Oral microbiome

Bioinformatic investigation of the cost management strategies of five oral microbes – Keith J. Cross – Molecular Oral Microbiology

“For Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus sanguinis, the outer membrane/extracellular proteins are made up of a much larger percentage of lower average mass amino acids whereas cytoplasmic proteins are made up of a larger proportion of higher average mass amino acid residues.”

Code blue: Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial pathogen with a role in the oral cavity – Ashley M. Richards – Molecular Oral Microbiology

“A. baumannii can sense blue light through a blue-light sensing using flavin (BLUF) domain protein, BlsA. The resulting conformational change in BlsA leads to changes in gene expression, including virulence genes.”

Skin microbiome

Study: Fist bumps are less germy than handshakes – Kim Painter – USA Today

“Whitworth and a colleague systematically tested the three greetings for a study published Monday in the American Journal of Infection Control.” (article not available yet – MD).

Vaginal microbiome

Gardnerella vaginalis Outcompetes 29 Other Bacterial Species Isolated From Patients With Bacterial Vaginosis, Using in an In Vitro Biofilm Formation Model – Patrícia Alvesa – Journal of Infectious Diseases

“Here, we isolated 30 BV-associated species and characterized their virulence, using an in vitro biofilm formation model. “

Long-term Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Vaginal Microbiota, Epithelial Thickness and HIV Target Cells – Caroline M. Mitchell – Journal of Infectious Diseases

“Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining.”

Gut microbiome

Correlation Between Intraluminal Oxygen Gradient and Radial Partitioning of Intestinal Microbiota in Humans and Mice – L. Albenberg – Gastroenterology

“In humans, 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed an increased proportion of oxygen-tolerant organisms of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla associated with the rectal mucosa, compared with the feces, indicating an effect of oxygenation on the microbiota. “

Patients with cystic fibrosis have a high carriage rate of non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile – M. P. Bauer – Clinical Microbiology and Infection

“In this case-control study, we found more carriers among CF patients than controls (47% versus 11%), but most strains carried by CF patients were non-toxigenic (77% versus 17%). “

Animal models of human microbiome and disease

Obese-type Gut Microbiota Induce Neurobehavioral Changes in the Absence of Obesity
Annadora J. Bruce-Keller – Biological Phychiatry

“Sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of distinct core microbiota between groups, with alterations in α- and β-diversity, modulation in taxonomic distribution, and statistically significant alterations to metabolically active taxa. “